Rotary engine.

Abstract

Claims

No. 632,25l. Patented Sept. I0, |90l. .l.- A. GROSHON. l ROTARY ENGINE. . (Applicion mod am 17, 1901.) (No Model.) 5 Shefs-Shee I. INVENTOR Inu. 682,251. I Patented sgpt. |o,19o|. J. A. GRDS'HON. ROTARY ENGINE. (Application med aan. 17, 1901.) (Nn Model.) 5 Sheets-Sheet 2. df' ATTORNEY Turno 1s PETERS co.. musmucww, n. c. Patented Sept. l0, 90L Sheets-Sheet 4. y J. A. GRUSHON. ROTARY, ENGINE. (Apphcatmn filed Inn 17 1901 A N9. l682,25l, (No Model.) No. 682,25l. PatentedV sept. lo, lam. J. A. GnosHoN. RnTAnY ENGINE. (Application led Il n. 17, 1901.)v l N 'Indem 5 Sheets-Sheet 5. wnNEssEs: 0R Tale/La7. Gros/ww req: "mams Parras nu., wsmnmmv. n. c. ' Beit known that I, JOHN A.. GnosHoN, UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. JOHN A. (lROSIi-( )N,-OF 'NEWT YORK, N. Y. ROTARY ENGINE.- SPECIFICATION Vforming* part of' Letters Patent No. 682,251, dated September 10, 1901. -pplicaticn tiled January 17, 1901. Serial No. 43.581. (No model.) To aLZZ whom it 11i/ty) cm1/cern.- l, citizen of theUnited States, and a resident of New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and usefullmprovements in Rotary Err gines, of which the following is a specification. The invention relates to improvements in rotary engines; and it consists in the novel. features, arrangement,.and combinations of parts hereinafter described, and particularly pointed 4out in the claims. The object of the invention is to produce a comparatively inexpensive form of rotary engine in which the power may be generated' with an economie use of the steam. - In carrying my invention into effect I provide a rotary wheel (to bekeyed upon the shaft to be driven, with pairs of steam cha-mvbers orcylinde'rs converging inward from oppositesides of the wheel andinthe'direetion of the motion of said wheel, and this Wheel I mount within an exterior casingo whose faceplates contain st'e'ainbhambers eorresponding with the chambers or cylinders in the wheel. r In the face-'plates of the casing Iv provide steam-supply channels' leading to' grooves in the said faceplates, the latter being adapted at the proper time to communicate with transverse channels provided in the :hub o fxthe aforesaid Wheel,'which channels in said hub are incommuuication with the aforesaid chambers or cylinders in said wheel. ' During the operation ofthe engine th'e steam is supplied from within the face-plates ofthe casing' tothe transverse channels in the hub of l,the wheehand said steam thence passes into the chambers or cylinders of the wheel and the steam -chambers within the faeeplates, with the result thattbe 'power of the steamwill be exertedfagainst the solid ends of the said cylinders and effect the driving of the wheel. Theinvent-i'on will be fully understood from the'detailed description hereinafter presen t* ed, reference 'being had to the accompanying drawings,i-n Which-T Figure 1 is a' sido elevation, partly broken away, of nrotary engine constructed in accoi-dance with and embodying the invention Fig. 2 is iicentral vertical section of saine on the-dotted line 2 2 of' Fig. l, the section being throngh'the exterior casingof the engine'anti the rotary Wheel being in elevation. Fig. 3 is a sectional View through aportion of the engine on the dotted line 3.3 of Fig. l. rotary wheel'witlta part of the easing surf rounding the saine, the bolts which extend through said casing being in section. 4Fig. 5 isl eface View, partly broken away, of one of the face-plates or sides' of tlieengine-'casing Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view through n part of the wheel and one face-plateonthe vdotted line 6 of Fig. 7. Fig. 7 is a side ele' ration of a part of the rotary wheel. Fig. 8 is a sectional view through one of the sides or face-plates'of the engine on the dotted line Sti of Fig 5, and Fig. 9 is a vertical section Fig. 1.- In the drawings, 2O denotes a, 'supporting traine or base for' the engne,saicl base being of en ysuitable construction and preferably engine and iuclosesthe rotary Whee'122, which 4is keyed upon the shaft 23 and cpntined be 'tween the sidesor face-plates 2i 24, said sides or faee'p'lates 2t, together with the ring' 21, forming the shell or casing for the' rotary i'whe'el' 22. The sides or face-.plates 24- are prlpheryare secured 'to the edges of the ring lil 'by means of the bolts 26. ehu'mbers 27, semicircular groove 2S, exhaustchannel 29,- and. channel ;3'0, leading 'to the selniereular groove 28, as. illustrated in Fig.. 5. The chambers 27 are preferably some whatelongatd' and substantially' semieircular in cross-section, andxsaid. chambers are -in the form of irecesses 'fr'in'ed at'equal dis- :ts The semicircnlnr groove 28 is, like the chambers 27, in the inner face of the sides "t 24', .and the channel t'lis formed within the i body of the sides 24., notbeing exposed i. through the engine o n the dotted line Y19 ot' tances apart in the inner face ofthe sides 2t Fig. 4 is a side elevation, part-lybroken away, of the being integral with a circular ring orsbeli 21,l which defines thecircular outline of the provided with suitable gia-nds 25 and at their l"lhe face-plates 2 4 corresp'ond'with one an- I other, and each is formed with the series Aof throughout its length along tliefaice of the 4sides 24, but being an interior channel whose' outer end passes into coinmnnicationwith the aforesaid groove 28 and whose lower end opens through the inner face of the side 24 and is in communication with a'. transversechannel 3l, Fig. 1, formed in the'ring 2l, and into which channel 31 is led the supply-pipe k' 32 for the live steam. In, Fig. 5 the' inner face of the Afacer-plate 24 is broken out along the line ofthe channel 30, so as lto 'disclose the said "channehfand the transversech'annel 31 is in Fig. 2 indicated by' dotted'lines, whereinit-.Will be seen that the channels 3Q, one in each faceplate24, extend upward and i open into the semicircular grooveor channel 28.` In Figs. Tand 9 Indica'te by dotted .lines the transverse channel 3l, and also the pipe 32'for the snpplyof steam t said transverseohannel 3 1, whence the steam passes laterally through the channel 31 to the lower channel- 29, Fig. 5, one' exhaust-channel 29 being ineachiaceplate'24, as shown in Fig... '9, and the two exhaustchanne1s29 are in ends of the channels 30, lup through which -the. steam passes to the semicircular grooves 28,1011@ f the latter 'beingV ineach face-plate 24. The lower chamber 27 in each face-plate 2 4 is connected with an interior exhaust'- communication wjth the transverse exhaustchannel 33., whichextends through the cas-4 Ving-ring 21 and is in communication with the exhaust-pipe 34, the latter. being V shown in lhe steam thus enters .through .the 'pipe-32 to the transverse channel. 31, cham. nels `30.1in the face-plates 24, and semicirow..y lar grooves 28 in the said face-plates, andthe exhaustis from the lower chambers 27 in 'the face-plates 24,l through the channels. 29 in the face-plates 24, transverse channel. 33 Fig. 1. in the ringl, and 'pipe 34. ' -The face-plates 24 in their preferredcon'- struction will be provided with fotofthe chambers 27,'assliown in Fig; 5,`and.tl ie"upper three chambers 27 will'at each .side of the engine be connected byay cored semicircuiar channel or passage 35, as indicated by" dotted lines in Fig. 5 and full. linesin Fig, 1, 4the channel or passage 35-:be`ingv capable of 1 beingrput into 'communication with any of the 4three upper chambers 27 through the 3 6 are equipped with .the valves 37., Fig'. 2, . having' screwthreaded stems .38 and operating-handles 39. through suitable glands, and by means of the hand-wheels 39 thevalves 37v maybe operated to open and close the openings 36, con necting thesemicircul'ar cored channels 35, w'ith 'the saidfupper three chambers 27. The purpose of the semicircular channels 35, openings 36, and valves 37 will appear hereina'fter, it being my Vpurpose at this part of the specification simply to describe the me 'chanical construction. of. the. face-plates 24. rPhe valvestems 38 pass The valves 37 are capable of independent 21, is of general circular Aoiitline and com? prises the hub 4l, keyed 'upon the drivingshaft 2 3, and the series of chambers 42,'there beingpreferably four of the chambers-42 in each face of the wheel 22 tov correspond. with the four chambers 27, formed in each 'faceplate24. The chambers-42 are in pairs and in pairscommunicate through ports 43 with A the channel 44, Figs. 4 and 9, each channel. '44 leading fromv a channel 45, formed in the hub 4l. There are four of the channels 45 in the hub41, as indicated in Figs. 1 and 4, and each of the channels '45 is in communi' cation through a, passage 44 and ports 43- Witlilone pair of the chambers 42,'as shown in Fig. 9, the expression one pair of chambers 42 meaning apair of adjacent chambers 42, the chambers 42 of each pair being in the opposite sides of the wheel 22 and converging inward towardfon'e another 'on inclined lines, as showin; in Fig. 3,10 a substantially' flat base or end 46,;wherein the ports 43 lead j from the passages44. There is therefore one transverse channel 45 providedA in the hub. 4l for each-pair of the chambers 42, and the ice transverse channels 45 are at'equaldistances f'a'part and at such distance 4from the driving- Vshaft 23 that during therotation of the Wheel 22 the oppositeends of the saidchannels 45 .will pass into alinement with and travel along the open sirnicircular grooves 28in the face'- -plates v24, `thereby establishing a .comm unication'forfthe steam from the said grooves 28. into the said 'channels 45, whence the steam will pass through the passages 44 and ports 43 into the said chambers 42. only enter the transverse channels 45 in the hub of the wheel While. the ends of the said The steam can channels are'in communication with the said grooves 28, andhence before-any one p'air of chambers 42 may receive any of the live steam. .the channel 45, connected with said .chambers, mustpass into communication with the" grooves 28 in the faceplates 24. Afterthe' ends of any special channel 45, during the I rotation of the .Wheel 22., passes beyond and from communication with the semicircular grooves 28 in the face-plates 24 it will beA cut oi`frorn the source of steam-supply, 'which s'through the grooves 28, and thereupon the ends of scid transverse channel 45 will travelA4 downward between-the plain portions. o i the inner faces of the plaies vesegesi 24, and the pair of chambers. 42, connected with said channel, will reach and may exhaust, Fig. 9, through the lower chambers 27, channels 29, transverse channel 33, and exhaust-pipe S4. The channels 44 are, as probably more clearly in dicated in Figs. 1 and 4,. formed in arms 47 which radiate from the hub 4], to the outer portions of the wheel 22, containing the aforesaid chambers 42. The outer facesof the wheel 22 contain the annular grooves 4S, -which encompass theV oute'r ends of the hub 4l and receive the rings 49, one ring 49'being set into each face ol"l the' chambers 27' in the face-plates 24 24. The face-plates 24. rings 49 are, as shown in Fig. 9, provided at ltheir peripheries with strips of packing material to engage the adjacentsurfaces of the wheel 22; but at their sides the said rings are sufficiently free of the adjacent surfaces of Athe wheel 22 and face-plates 24 to allow the steam to act upon said sides, and thereby to aid in balancing the wheel and avoid friction. The wheel 22, at'the oppositesides of the passages 45 in its hub, is provided with the annular packing-ringsO l, as shown in- Fig. 9, in order to prevent the iiowof the steam bet-Ween the sides of the wheel and the inner faces of the plates 24, said annular packing-rings 50 5l guarding the ends of the transverse channels 45 in the hub 41 and Valso the semicircnlar grooves 2S in the faceplates 24. In the operation of the engine thelive steam will beadniitted through thesupplyfpipe 32 to the transverse channel 31, whence the lsteam will pass throu gh the cored channels and enter the seinicircular grooves 2S in the l'ihe semicircuiar grooves 2S in the face-plates 24 will always be in communication with. Vone or more or". the trans verse channels in the hub 4l of the wheel 22, and hence the live steam will enter the,` channel or channels 45 in communication with the grooves 28 and pass thence through the chan nels 44 and ports 413 into one cr'niore pairs of-thc chambers or cylinders in said wheel 22, with the ellect of filling said chain# bers or cylinders 42 and the chambers'2' communicating therewith and driving the wheel and shaft 23. The steam iilling the chambers or cylinders 42 and communicating chambers 27 acts against the inner ends 4o of the said chambers or cylinders 42 and drives the wheel 22fin the direction in which the said ends 4G extend. The cylinders or Chambers 42 Aconverge inward toward one another, as shown, and thus the pressure ofthe steam is on inclined lines toward the center of the wheel 22, and the latter is enabled to move freely without undue friction and .tion with the grooves chambers or tion withihe wheel in motion. pose is to exclude theatmosphere from the with Ithe greatesteconomy in the use of the- Stelll. In the accompanying drawings the hub 41. ofthe wheel 22 is shown as having four of the transverse channels 45 for communica- 2S in the faceplates 24, and under such conditions two pairs of cylinders 42 will alwaysbe in communication with the grooves 28; but 1 desire .to be understood that this invention is not limited to the employment of the four or any special number of transverse channels 45, nor is theinvention limited to any special length of the grooves 2S in the faceplates 24, since it will at timesi be a mattei' of discretion, governed by the special use of the engine` how far the channels 45 in the hub 4l shall follow aiong the supply-grooves 2S, it being apparent thatit will only be necessary for the channels 45 to be in communication with the steam-supply long enough ton isure the proper `economical use of the engine and thatthe point of cut-olf of the steam from the channels 45 will vary in accordance with the conditions to be met in the use to'Which the Iengine may be applied. The invention is also ,not limited to the em` ployment of four pairs of chambers 42 and four sets of chambers 27,; but when four pairs of chambers 42 and four sets of the chambers high degree oi eliciency. l In the normal condition of the engine all ofthe valves 37 will beclosed, and hence in such normal condition of the engine the channels 35, connecting the chambers 27, will be closed against said chambers. The valves 37 and channels 35 are made use of more particularly during the starting 0E the engine and in case of emergency. lf; for instance, the wheel 22 shouldfor any reason become centered upon the lirst entrance of the steam through the supply-pipe 32 one or more of the valves 37 may be 'opened to permit the steam to pass from one pair of chambers 27 through the channels 35ito distant chambers 27 and their communicating chambers 42, so' that the steam-pressure may thus be exerted in such distant chambers 27 42 for the'purpose of overcoming the inertia ot' the wheel and effecting the starting of the said wheel, and thereupon such of the valves 37 as may have been opened will be closed and the engine will be left in its normal condi- My pursteani-chanibers within the casing of the en; gine and to suitably trap the exhaust-pipe 3 4 in order thatthe wheel 22 mayas far as possible have its motion within an air-'tight casing,A thereby tocarry out my object of obtaining power from the steam `until the latter has substantially reached the atmospheric point and avoid any escape of steam from the exhaust. The length of the grooves 2S in Vthe face- 27 are made use of the engine will possess a.. ICD IIC IZO IIS i steam from.' the grooves 28 will have their. ' previously left in said chambers 27, and there- I y omitted, the live steam would then initially chambers or cylinders 42 not in communicylinders 42 in the chambers 27. The con-V and in `that event fbe desired to a the engine. plates 24 will vary 'in accordance with the number of the chambers .or cylinders 42 it may be desired to have receive at one .time the live steam from said grooves, and in the eventthat it should be so desired the groove 28 may be'lengthened in order that .tive steam. may also (through the then lower.' chambers 42). enter the lower chambers 27 inthe faceplates 24, so as 'to increase the power of the engine to the sacrifice, probably, of economy, the water of condensation will escape throughV lthe channels 29 tothe trapped pipe 34.` In the event that it should dmitl the steam to only- One pair of cylinders or chambers. 42 at a time the grooves 28 may of course be shortened, soas to confine thc-admission of the-steam to' lhe one pair of chambers o r cylinders 42 and V the chambers 27 communicating therewith. Such ofl the chambers or cylinders 42 as it, may be desired shall not receive the live. transverse channels 45 in the hub 4l closed or plugged up at their ends or vomitted altogether, and in that event the chambers or cylinders 42 not having any communication with the supply for live steam will still be used eectively by reason of the. fact that they will travel into communication withthe chambers 27 in the face-plates 24 and afford spaces for the expansion of the steam by whatever power there may be i-n the steam on its expansion from the chambers 27 into the chambers 42 will be utilized in driving If three ofthe transverse channels 45- in the hub 4l should be closed or enter through the one remaining channel 45 into one pair of the chambers or cylinders 42and their communicating chambers.v 27 in the faceplates, and this steam thus admitted would drive the wheel 22 and during the rotation of thev said wheel would in part pass into the chambers 27, along which said initial chambers or cylinders 4 2 travel, and thence from said chambers 27 into thelr cation with the live-steam supply, the latter cylinders 42 thus becoming charged with the steam left by the iirst pair ofchambers or tinued rotation of the wheel 22 and the coutinued ohargingot` the initial pair o f chambers or cylinders 42 from the supply for live steam would result in fresh charges of steam being admitted to the several chambers 27 and from them expanded. into the chambers or cylinders 42 for driving the wheel 22. NVhether the steam should be initially admitted from the sorce of supply to one pair of cylinders' or chambers 42, or to every alternate -pair ot chambers or cylinders 42, or to all of the cylinders or chambers 42 is a matter which will depend upon the special uses to which the l engine may be put'and also upon the quesf tion. of economy and the degree of power required, andvthese matters will be regulated by-the manufacturer in accordance with the existing conditions, it being only necessary on his part to lengthen or shorten'the grooves 2S and employ the desired number of trans-A verse channels 45 in the hub 4l. that the chambers' or cylinders 42 converge inward towardthe center offthe wheel 22 and portant, in that thereby the lines of force ex-A erted'by the steam'are such as to insure the lbest results, and the fact that the grooves 2,8 are on opposite sides of the wheel 22 is also of advantage, in thatthereby there is a balancing of' pressure at the opposite sides of the said wheel and thelatter is enabled to roltate with the proper freedom. `The chambers 27 'should'be' of such distance from one another that each chamber 42 will pass from The fact in the direction of the line of motion is imcommunicationtwith one chamber 27 before'V reaching a commnnicationwith the next following chamber 27. What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, i`s` vl., Inja rotary engine' the exterior casing comprising the ring and face-plates, the'lat ter havingthe channels 30 and grooves'28 for the admission of the motive fluid, and also the chambers 'said casing and comprising the hub 41 andouter portion containing the pairsvof cham- 27 exposed at their facing sides,com bined with the-wheel 22, and shaft23, saidv lwheel being mounted on said shaft within roo j bers or cylinders 42 arranged'with respect to said chambers 27, said hub having channels to communicate with said grooves 28 and being in communication with the said chambers or cylinders 42 substantially as set forth. - 2. In a rotary engine, the exterior casing comprising the ring and face-plates, the latter having the channels 30 and grooves 2.8 for the admission of the moti-ve fluid, and also having the series of chambers 27 exposed at .rio their facing sides, said grooves 28 being Vonl i' the arc of a circle, combined with the wheel 45 to travel along said grooves 28,.and said wheeljhaving-passages leading from said 22, and shaft 23, said wheel beingmounted izo channels 45 into the said chambers or cylinders 42; substantially as set forth. In a rotary engine, the exterior casing comprising the ring and face-plates, the latterhaving the channels 30 and grooves 28 for the admission of the motive fluid, the series of chambers 27y exposed at their facing'sides', and the valved passages 35 connecting said chambers 27, combined with the wheel 22, and shaft 2.3, said wheel beingmountcd on said shaft within casing and comprising cylinders 42 -chambers 27, said hub having the channels the hub 41 and ou ter portion containing the pairs of inwardly-converging chambers or arranged with respect to said 45 to travel along said grooves 28, and said wheel having channels 45 into the said chambers or cylinders 42; substantially as set forth. 4. In a rotary engine, the exterior casing comprising the ring and faceplates, the latteihaving the channels() having the series of chambers 27 exposed at their vfacing sides, combined with the wheel the flat rings 49in said grooves the packings along theirperiphery to engage 'the adjacent walls of said wheel, and the shaft 23, said wheel being mounted on saidl shaft within said casing and comprising the hub 41 and outer portion containing the pairs of chambers or cylinders 42 arranged with respect to said chambers 27, saidA hub having channels to communicate with said g-roovesi28 and being in communication with said chambers or cylinders 42, and said rings 49 having openings to match the open ends of said chambers or cylinders 42; substantially as set forth.v 5; vIn a rotary engine, the exterior casing comprising the ring and face-plates, said ring having the exhaust-channel 33, and said faceplates having the channels 30 and grooves' 28 for the admission of the motive iiuid, the chambers 27 exposed at their facingsides, and the channels 291eadingfrom the lower chambers 27 to said exhaust-channel 33, combined with the wheel 22, and shaft- 2?., said wheel being mounted on said shaft withiivsaid casi-ng and'comprising the hub 41 and outer portion containing the pairs of chambers r cylinders 4 2 arranged with respect to said chambers 27, said hub having channels to communicate with saidgrooves 28 and being in communication with the said chambers or cylinders 42; substantially as setforth. 6.4 In a rotary engine, the exterior casing comprising the ring and face-plates, the latter having inlet-channels for themotive fluid and also the chambers 27 exposed at their fac. ing sides, combined with the wheel 22, and Shaft 23, said wheel being mounted on said shaft within said casing and comprising the hub 41 and outer poi tion con taining the pairs ofinwardly-convergingchambers or cylinders 42 arranged with respect to said chambers 27 said hub having channels 45 to communicate I- withsaid inlet-channels and beingv in conimunication. with said-chambers or cylinders 42; substantially as etforth. . 7. In a rotary engiiie,t`he exterior casing comprising the 'ringan'd". face-plates, the latter having inlet-channels for the motive Huid and also the chambers27 exposed at their facing sides, coinbinedwith the wheel 22, and passages leading -from saidV and grooves 28 forthe admission of the motive iinid, and also'A shaftl23, said wheel being mounted on said shaftvwithln said casing and comprising the hub 41 and outer portion containing a pair of inwardly-converging chambers `or cylinders 42 whose outer ends are exposed toward said face-plates andr adapted to travel along the line of said chambers 27, said hub having` a channel 45 to communicate with' said inletchannels and being in communication with said chambers or cylinders 42; substantially as set forth. 8. VIn a rotary engine, the sides having the inlets for the motive fluid and provided on their inner faces with chambers 27', combined with the wheel 22 connected with the shaft to be driven and comprising the hub 41 having a channel 'to pass ifnto communication with. 'said inlets and the outer portion having the pairsof inwardly-converging chambers 42 Awhose outer ends are exposed toward said sides and adaptedlo travel along the line of vsaid chambers 27, said wheel also having pasjsage's for the'inotive fiuid' from the channel insaid hub to a pair of said chambers 42 y substantially as set forth. - 9.111 -a rotary engine, the sides having the inlets for the motive fluid and provided on their inner faces with theV chambers27, combined with .the wheel 22 between said. sidesand connected with the shaft to be driven, said wheel havingl in its opposite sides the pairs of chambers or cylinders 42 to coperate with the said chambers in said sides, thel hub of said wheel vhaving the channels to follow along the said inlets, and said channels being in communica-tion with the inner ends of the said pairs of chambers or cylinders 42; substantially as set forth. 10. In a rotary engine, the sides havingthe inletsand provided on their inner faces with the chambers 27,-combined with the wheel 22'v connected with the shaft to be driven and comprisinglhe -hub 41 having channels to travel along in communication with said inlets and the outer portion having the pairs of inwarl'lly-converging chambers or cylinders 42 whose outer ends are exposed toward said sides and adapted to travel'along the line of said chambers 27, said wheel also having passages for the motive Huid from the channels in the said hub to the inner ends of said pairs of chambers 42;.substantially as set forth. 11. In a rotaryengine-the casing havingin its sidesthe chambers 27, combined with the wheel 22 between said sides and connected with the shaftto be driven, said wheel hav- Y ing in its opposite sides the pairs of chainiu communication with the` inner ends ofthe l said pairs of chambers or cylinders 42; substanlally as set forth. .12. I-n'a rotary engine, the casing having i the sides :provided with the chambers a suitable supply with Lhe wheel 22 connected with the shaft the said chambers to be driven and comprisng'the hub having channels to communicate with the steam-supand the outer portion having the pairs of inwardly-converging chambers or cylinders 42 whose outer ends are exposed toward said sides and adapted to travel along the line of 27, said wheel `also hav- 27,a'.nd pairs of ohambersv 42; for ,the st-eain,coinbined forth. ing passages for-the motive fluid to the said substantially as seb .v Siguedat, 4York and Stateof New York, this 16th day January, A. D. 1901. r 1 JOHN A. eRosI-ION. VV'ilnesses: t CHAs. C. GILL, ANNA V. BRoDER1oK. I

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