Formulations of guanylate cyclase C agonists and methods of use

Abstract

The invention provides low-dose formulations of guanylate cyclase-C (“GCC”) agonist peptides and methods for their use. The formulations of the invention can be administered either alone or in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents, preferably an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase or a laxative.

Claims

We claim: 1. A method for treating chronic constipation in a human subject comprising orally administering to said human subject a composition consisting of a per unit dose of 3 mg or 6 mg of a peptide consisting of SEQ ID NO:1 wherein the peptide is a [4,12; 7,15] bicycle, an inert low moisture carrier, and a lubricant, and wherein the peptide has a chromatographic purity of no less than 91% after storage for at least three months. 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the constipation is associated with irritable bowel syndrome or chronic idiopathic constipation. 3. A method of treating or alleviating a symptom associated with chronic idiopathic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome in a human subject comprising orally administering to said human subject a composition consisting of a per unit dose of 3 mg or 6 mg of a peptide consisting of SEQ ID NO:1 wherein the peptide is a [4,12; 7,15] bicycle, an inert low moisture carrier, and a lubricant, and wherein the peptide has a chromatographic purity of no less than 91% after storage for at least three months. 4. The method of claim 3 , wherein the symptom is constipation or abdominal pain. 5. The method of claim 1 , further comprising administering to said patient an effective dose of an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase either concurrently or sequentially with said guanylate cyclase receptor agonist. 6. The method of claim 5 , wherein said inhibitor of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase is selected from the group consisting of sulindac sulfone, zaprinast, and motapizone. 7. The method of claim 1 , further comprising administering to said patient an effective dose of a laxative. 8. The method of claim 3 , further comprising administering to said patient an effective dose of an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase either concurrently or sequentially with said guanylate cyclase receptor agonist. 9. The method of claim 8 , wherein said inhibitor of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase is selected from the group consisting of sulindac sulfone, zaprinast, and motapizone. 10. The method of claim 3 , further comprising administering to said patient an effective dose of a laxative. 11. The method of claim 1 , wherein the inert low moisture carrier is microcrystalline cellulose. 12. The method of claim 1 , wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate. 13. The method of claim 1 , wherein the inert low moisture carrier is microcrystalline cellulose and the lubricant is magnesium stearate. 14. The method of claim 3 , wherein the inert low moisture carrier is microcrystalline cellulose. 15. The method of claim 3 , wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate. 16. The method of claim 3 , wherein the inert low moisture carrier is microcrystalline cellulose and the lubricant is magnesium stearate.
RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/661,299, filed Mar. 18, 2015, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/421,769, filed Mar. 15, 2012, which is a continuation-in-part of PCT/US2011/051805 filed on Sep. 15, 2011, which claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/383,156 filed on Sep. 15, 2010, U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/387,636 filed on Sep. 29, 2010, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/392,186 filed on Oct. 12, 2010, the contents of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties. INCORPORATION-BY-REFERENCE OF SEQUENCE LISTING The contents of the text file named “SYPA_009_C02US_Sequence_Listing.txt”, which was created on Sep. 3, 2015 and is 113 KB in size, are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to low-dose formulations of guanylate cyclase C peptide agonists useful for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and disorders. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Guanylate cyclase C is a transmembrane form of guanylate cyclase that is expressed on various cells, including gastrointestinal epithelial cells (reviewed in Vaandrager 2002 Mol. Cell. Biochem. 230:73-83). It was originally discovered as the intestinal receptor for the heat-stable toxin (ST) peptides secreted by enteric bacteria and which cause diarrhea. The ST peptides share a similar primary amino acid structure with two peptides isolated from intestinal mucosa and urine, guanylin and uroguanylin (Currie, et al., Proc. Nat'l Acad. Sci. USA 89:947-951 (1992); Hamra, et al., Proc. Nat'l Acad. Sci. USA 90:10464-10468 (1993); Forte, L., Reg. Pept. 81:25-39 (1999); Schulz, et al., Cell 63:941-948 (1990); Guba, et al., Gastroenterology 111:1558-1568 (1996); Joo, et al., Am. J. Physiol. 274:G633-G644 (1998)). In the intestines, guanylin and uroguanylin act as regulators of fluid and electrolyte balance. In response to high oral salt intake, these peptides are released into the intestinal lumen where they bind to guanylate cyclase C localized on the luminal membrane of enterocytes (simple columnar epithelial cells of the small intestines and colon). The binding of the guanylin peptides to guanylate cyclase C induces electrolyte and water excretion into the intestinal lumen via a complex intracellular signaling cascade that is initiated by an increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The cGMP-mediated signaling that is initiated by the guanylin peptides is critical for the normal functioning of the gut. Any abnormality in this process could lead to gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammatory bowel disease is a general name given to a group of disorders that cause the intestines to become inflamed, characterized by red and swollen tissue. Examples include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease is a serious inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the ileum and colon, but can also occur in other sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis is exclusively an inflammatory disease of the colon, the large intestine. Unlike Crohn's disease, in which all layers of the intestine are involved, and in which there can be normal healthy bowel in between patches of diseased bowel, ulcerative colitis affects only the innermost lining (mucosa) of the colon in a continuous manner. Depending on which portion of the gastrointestinal tract is involved, Crohn's disease may be referred to as ileitis, regional enteritis, colitis, etc. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis differ from spastic colon or irritable bowel syndrome, which are motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal inflammation can be a chronic condition. It is estimated that as many as 1,000,000 Americans are afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease, with male and female patients appearing to be equally affected. Most cases are diagnosed before age 30, but the disease can occur in the sixth, seventh, and later decades of life. IBS and chronic idiopathic constipation are pathological conditions that can cause a great deal of intestinal discomfort and distress but unlike the inflammatory bowel diseases, IBS does not cause the serious inflammation or changes in bowel tissue and it is not thought to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. In the past, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and IBS were regarded as completely separate disorders. Now, with the description of inflammation, albeit low-grade, in IBS, and of symptom overlap between IBS and celiac disease, this contention has come under question. Acute bacterial gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor identified to date for the subsequent development of postinfective irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical risk factors include prolonged acute illness and the absence of vomiting. A genetically determined susceptibility to inflammatory stimuli may also be a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome. The underlying pathophysiology indicates increased intestinal permeability and low-grade inflammation, as well as altered motility and visceral sensitivity. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine[5-HT]) is a key modulator of gut function and is known to play a major role in pathophysiology of IBS. The activity of 5-HT is regulated by cGMP. While the precise causes of IBS and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are not known, a disruption in the process of continual renewal of the gastrointestinal mucosa may contribute to disease pathology in IBD and aggravate IBS. The renewal process of the gastrointestinal lining is an efficient and dynamic process involving the continual proliferation and replenishment of unwanted damaged cells. Proliferation rates of cells lining the gastrointestinal mucosa are very high, second only to the hematopoietic system. Gastrointestinal homeostasis depends on both the proliferation and programmed cellular death (apoptosis) of epithelial cells lining the gut mucosa. Cells are continually lost from the villus into the lumen of the gut and are replenished at a substantially equal rate by the proliferation of cells in the crypts, followed by their upward movement to the villus. The rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the gut epithelium can be increased or decreased in a variety of circumstances, e.g., in response to physiological stimuli such as aging, inflammatory signals, hormones, peptides, growth factors, chemicals and dietary habits. In addition, an enhanced proliferation rate is frequently associated with a reduction in turnover time and an expansion of the proliferative zone. The proliferation index is much higher in pathological states such as ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal disorders. Intestinal hyperplasia is a major promoter of gastrointestinal inflammation. Apoptosis and cell proliferation together regulate cell number and determine the proliferation index. Reduced rates of apoptosis are often associated with abnormal growth, inflammation, and neoplastic transformation. Thus, both increased proliferation and/or reduced cell death may increase the proliferation index of intestinal tissue, which may in turn lead to gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. In addition to a role for uroguanylin and guanylin as modulators of intestinal fluid and ion secretion, these peptides may also be involved in the continual renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa by maintaining the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. For example, uroguanylin and guanylin peptides appear to promote apoptosis by controlling cellular ion flux. Given the prevalence of inflammatory conditions in Western societies a need exists to improve the treatment options for inflammatory conditions, particularly of the gastrointestinal tract. Peptide agonists of guanylate cyclase C agonists (“GCC agonists”) are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,041,786, 7,799,897, and U.S. Patent Application Publication Nos. US2009/0048175, US 2010/0069306, US 2010/0120694, US 2010/0093635, and US 2010/0221329. However, the formulation of peptides for pharmaceutical delivery presents a number of special problems. For example, peptides are subject to structural modifications by a variety of degradation mechanisms resulting in problems of chemical and physical instability of the formulation. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides low-dose formulations of peptide agonists of guanylate cyclase C (“GCC”) and methods for their use in the treatment and prevention of human diseases and disorders, such as a gastrointestinal motility disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, a functional gastrointestinal disorder, gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional heartburn, dyspepsia, functional dyspepsia, nonulcer dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, colonic pseudo-obstruction; Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, colonic pseudo-obstruction, obesity, congestive heart failure, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In certain embodiments, the formulations are stabilized against chemical degradation of the peptide. The low-dose formulations of the invention have unexpected efficacy in humans in a dosage range that was not predicted based on studies in primates. The formulations of the invention are particularly useful for the treatment or prevention of chronic idiopathic constipation. In certain embodiments, the GCC agonists are analogs of uroguanylin and bacterial ST peptides. In preferred embodiments, the analogs have superior properties compared to the naturally occurring or “wild-type” peptides. Examples of such superior properties include a high resistance to degradation at the N-terminus and C-terminus from carboxypeptidases, aminopeptidases, and/or by other proteolytic enzymes present in the stimulated human intestinal juices and human gastric juices. Examples of GCC agonists that can be used in the formulations and methods of the invention are described in more detail below and in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,041,786, 7,799,897, and U.S. Patent Application Publication Nos. US2009/0048175, US 2010/0069306, US 2010/0120694, US 2010/0093635, and US 2010/0221329, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The invention provides an oral dosage formulation comprising one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients and at least one GCC agonist peptide, wherein the amount of GCC agonist peptide per unit dose is from 0.01 mg to 10 mg, and wherein the GCC agonist peptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1-54 and 56-249. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide has a chromatographic purity of no less than 90%, no less than 90.5%, no less than 91%, no less than 92%, no less than 93%, no less than 94%, no less than 95%, no less than 96%, no less than 97%, no less than 98%, or no less than 99%. The chromatographic purity of the GCC agonist peptide is determined as area percent by HPLC. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 8, 9, or 56. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1 and 9. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 8 and 9. In one embodiment, the amount of GCC agonist peptide per unit dose is 0.1 mg, 0.3 mg, 0.6 mg, 1.0 mg, 3.0 mg, 6.0 mg, 9.0 mg or 9.5 mg. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide has a total impurity content of no greater than 10%, no greater than 9.5%, no greater than 9%, no greater than 8%, no greater than 7%, no greater than 6%, no greater than 5%, no greater than 4%, no greater than 3%, no greater than 2%, or no greater than 1%. The total impurity content is determined as total area percentages of impurities by HPLC. The impurities do not include any pharmaceutically acceptable excipient used for the formulation. In one embodiment, the formulation is substantially free of inorganic acids and carboxylic acids, e.g., HCl, phosphoric acid, or acetic acid. In this context, carboxylic acids do not include amino acids or peptides. In this context “substantially” free of acids means that the acid content of the formulation at the time of packaging is preferably less than 0.2%, less than 0.1%, less than 0.05%, less than 0.01%, less than 0.005%, or less than 0.001% of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment, the formulation is free of HCl. In one embodiment, the formulation is a solid formulation. In one embodiment, the formulation is in the form of a powder, granule, sachet, troche, tablet, or capsule. In another embodiment, the formulation is a liquid formulation and the GCC agonist peptide is in solution or suspension in a lipophilic liquid. In one embodiment, the liquid is a refined specialty oil or a medium chain triglyceride or related ester. In one embodiment, the refined specialty oil is selected from Arachis oil, Castor oil, cottonseed oil, maize (corn) oil, olive oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. In one embodiment, the medium chain triglyceride or related ester is AKOMED E, AKOMED R, CAPTEX 355, LABRAFAC CC, LABRAFAC PG, LAUROGLYCOL FCC, MIGLYOL 810, MIGLYOL 812, MIGLYOL 829, MIGLYOL 840, and SOFTISAN 645. In one embodiment, the liquid is selected from the group consisting of medium chain triglycerides, propylene glycol dicaprylocaprate, vitamin E, soybean oil, Cremaphor, PG, and PG 400. In one embodiment, the unit dose is a powder, tablet, or capsule. In one embodiment, the unit dose is a liquid-filled capsule. In one embodiment, the capsule or tablet is in a blister pack or strip. Preferably, the blister pack or strip is made of a material that is impermeable to water vapor and oxygen. In one embodiment the blister pack is comprised of a metal foil. In one embodiment the blister pack is a FOIL/FOIL blister pack. In one embodiment, the container of the blister pack is flushed with an inert gas such as nitrogen or argon. In one embodiment, the container further includes a desiccant. In a preferred embodiment the desiccant is a molecular sieve. In one embodiment, the unit dose is in a high density polyethylene bottle having a seal. In one embodiment, the bottle further comprises a desiccant. In one embodiment, the bottle further comprises an oxygen scavenger or molecular sieve. In one embodiment, the bottle is nearly impermeable to oxygen and water vapor (e.g., much more impermeable than a HDPE bottle), such as an OxyGuard bottle. In one embodiment, the one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients include an inert carrier. In one embodiment, the inert carrier is a selected from mannitol, lactose, a microcrystalline cellulose, or starch. In one embodiment, the inert carrier has a particle size of from 50 to 900 microns, from 50 to 800 microns, from 50 to 300 microns, from 50 to 200 microns, from 75 to 150 microns, from 75 to 200 microns, or from 75 to 300 microns. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is stabilized against chemical or physical degradation for a period of at least 18 months at 30° C. and 65% relative humidity, or at least 18 months at 25° C. and 60% relative humidity, or at least 18 months at 2-8° C. In one embodiment, the one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients include a divalent cation salt such as calcium chloride. In one embodiment, the one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprise an amino acid, such as leucine, histidine, or arginine, or an amine such TRIS or TRIS/HCl. In one embodiment, the oral dosage formulation consists of the GCC agonist peptide described herein, an inert carrier (e.g., Celphere SCP-100, Avicel PH 102, or Avicel PH 112), and a lubricant (e.g., magnesium stearate). In one embodiment, the formulation consists of the GCC agonist peptide, an inert carrier (e.g., Avicel PH 200), a divalent cation salt (e.g., calcium chloride or calcium ascorbate), an amino acid (e.g., leucine, histidine, or arginine) or a protective amine (e.g., TRIS), a coating agent (e.g., Methocel ES Premium LV) and optionally a lubricant (e.g., magnesium stearate) or another additive (e.g., trehalose). In one embodiment, the formulation consists of the GCC agonist peptide, a binder (e.g., Provsolv SMCC 90 LM), and a disintegrant (e.g., Explotab). In one embodiment, the formulation consists of the GCC agonist peptide, a diluent (e.g., Mannogem EZ), a binder (e.g., Provsolv SMCC 90 LM), a disintegrant (e.g., Explotab), a lubricant (e.g., Pruv). The invention also provides a process for making the oral dosage formulations described herein, wherein the process comprises a step of dry granulation, wet granulation, or spray coating followed by drying. In another embodiment, the process comprises a step of dry mixing. In a preferred embodiment the step of dry mixing includes geometric blending. In one embodiment, the process comprises a step of direct compression. In one embodiment, the process for making the oral dosage formulations described herein is a spray coating-drying process which includes (a) providing an aqueous solution comprising: a GCC agonist peptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1-54 and 56-249, and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, wherein the concentration of the GCC agonist peptide ranges from 10 to 60 mg/mL; and (b) applying the aqueous solution to a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier to generate a GCC agonist peptide-coated carrier. In one embodiment of the spray coating-drying process above, the one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprise a divalent cation salt wherein the divalent cation is selected from Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Mn 2+ . In one embodiment, the one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprise an amino acid selected from leucine, isoleucine, and valine. In one embodiment, the one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients comprise a coating agent (such as hypromellose Methocel E5 PremLV). In one embodiment, the aqueous solution has a pH greater than 4 (e.g., 4.5-5.5, 5-6, about 5, or greater than 5) or even greater than 7. In one embodiment, the aqueous solution is substantially free of inorganic acids and carboxylic acids. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 8, 9, and 56. In one embodiment, the process further includes drying the GCC agonist peptide-coated carrier. The invention further provides an oral dosage formulation made by the process described herein. Preferably, the GCC agonist peptide as made is stabilized against chemical or physical degradation for a period of at least 18 months at 30° C. and 65% relative humidity, or at least 18 months at 25° C. and 60% relative humidity, or at least 18 months at 2-8° C. The invention also provides a method for treating or preventing a disease or disorder in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject an oral dosage formulation comprising at least one GCC agonist peptide, wherein the amount of GCC agonist peptide per unit dose is from 0.01 mg to 10 mg, and wherein the GCC agonist peptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1-54 and 56-249. Preferably, the subject is a human subject. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 8, 9, or 56. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1 and 9. In one embodiment, the amount of GCC agonist peptide per unit dose is 0.1 mg, 0.3 mg, 0.6 mg, 1.0 mg, 3.0 mg, 6.0 mg, 9.0 mg, 9.5 mg, or 10 mg. In one embodiment, the disease or disorder is a gastrointestinal disease or disorder selected from the group consisting of irritable bowel syndrome, non-ulcer dyspepsia, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, functional dyspepsia, colonic pseudo-obstruction, duodenogastric reflux, gastro esophageal reflux disease, constipation, gastroparesis, heartburn, gastric cancer, and H. pylori infection. In a preferred embodiment, the gastrointestinal disease or disorder is chronic idiopathic constipation. In one embodiment, the method further comprises administering to the subject an effective amount of an inhibitor of a cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase. In one embodiment, the cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of suldinac sulfone, zaprinast, and motapizone, vardenifil, and suldenifil. In one embodiment, the method further comprises administering to the subject an effective amount of at least one laxative. In one embodiment, the at least one laxative is selected from the group consisting of SENNA, MIRALAX, PEG, or calcium polycarbophil. In one embodiment, the method further comprises administering to the subject an effective amount of at least one anti-inflammatory agent. The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising the formulations described herein. Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from and are encompassed by the following detailed description and claims. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 : Plecanatide (SP-304) treatment reduced time to first BM following daily dose. FIG. 2 : Effect of daily treatment with plecanatide on spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) in chronic constipation patients. FIG. 3 : Effect of daily treatment with plecanatide on complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBM) in chronic constipation patients. FIG. 4 : Effect of daily treatment with plecanatide on Bristol Stool Form Scores (BSFS) in chronic constipation patients. FIG. 5 : Effect of daily treatment with plecanatide on straining scores in chronic constipation patients FIG. 6 : Percentage of subjects reporting improvements in abdominal discomfort scores after 14-days of daily treatment with plecanatide. DETAILED DESCRIPTION The invention provides pharmaceutical formulations of peptide GCC agonists. It is intended that the formulations of the invention are “pharmaceutical” formulations, meaning that they are suitable for pharmaceutical use. Accordingly, the term “formulations” as used herein is meant to encompass pharmaceutical formulations even if “pharmaceutical” is not expressly stated. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising the formulations described herein are also provided by the invention. The formulations of the invention preferably provide stability against chemical and physical degradation of the peptide, e.g., plecanatide (i.e., SEQ ID #1). The invention is based in part upon the discovery that mannitol mixes very effectively with the GCC agonist peptides described herein and provides stability against degradation, allowing the peptides to be formulated at very low doses. The invention is also based in part on the discovery that very low doses of the GCC agonist peptides described herein are effective for the treatment of diseases and disorders in humans. The dosage range found to be effective was not predicted based on animal studies. The invention is also based in part upon the discovery that a divalent cation (e.g., Ca 2+ ) and/or an amino acid (e.g., leucine or arginine) stabilize the GCC agonist peptides described herein during a process (e.g., spray coating-drying process) of manufacturing a formulation of the GCC agonist peptides and provides stability against degradation both during the manufacturing process and storage of the formulation. Plecanatide is a charged peptide due to the presence of four carboxylic acids and single amine group with a calculated pKa of approximately 3.5. Therefore plecanatide is likely to interact with ions in solution or in the solid state. Plecanatide is a hygroscopic peptide requiring the control of water during manufacture and storage to promote long term stability. Plecanatide is prone to degradation by oxidation in the presence of residual peroxides or formaldehyde contaminants that are formed from peroxide reaction with polymeric excipients. The present invention discloses a manufacturing process and dry solid formulation compositions that minimizes water content. The formulations are comprised of components to minimize levels of residual formaldehyde and peroxides commonly found in many pharmaceutical excipients. The invention also discloses additives (i.e. CaCl 2 ) that may function as local desiccants in the formulation. Divalent cation salts such as calcium ascorbate, MgCl 2 , ZnCl 2 , MnCl 2 and CaCl 2 bind plecanatide and sterically hinder reactive species such as water or oxygen from causing plecanatide degradation by molecular displacement. The invention further includes scavengers of residual formaldehyde (amines such as TRIS or TRIS/HCl or amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine), and discloses packaging confirmations to minimize oxygen exposure and water vapor during storage. The invention also discloses a stable manufacturing process comprised of initially dissolving plecanatide in cold water to minimize solution degradation, followed by spray coating the peptide solution on particles and drying to remove moisture. The formulations of the invention are particularly useful for the treatment or prevention of a gastrointestinal disease or disorder selected from the group consisting of irritable bowel syndrome, non-ulcer dyspepsia, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, functional dyspepsia, colonic pseudo-obstruction, duodenogastric reflux, gastro esophageal reflux disease, chronic idiopathic constipation, gastroparesis, heartburn, gastric cancer, and H. pylori infection. In one embodiment, the formulations of the invention are used in a method for the treatment of constipation. Clinically accepted criteria that define constipation range from the frequency of bowel movements, the consistency of feces and the ease of bowel movement. One common definition of constipation is less than three bowel movements per week. Other definitions include abnormally hard stools or defecation that requires excessive straining. Constipation may be idiopathic (functional constipation or slow transit constipation) or secondary to other causes including neurologic, metabolic or endocrine disorders. These disorders include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypocalcaemia, Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord lesions, Neurofibromatosis, autonomic neuropathy, Chagas disease, Hirschsprung disease and cystic fibrosis. Constipation may also be the result of surgery or due to the use of drugs such as analgesics (like opioids), antihypertensives, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antispasmodics and antipsychotics. In a preferred embodiment, the constipation is chronic idiopathic constipation. The stabilized formulations of the invention comprise at least one GCC agonist peptide formulated with one or more excipients such that the peptide is stabilized against chemical degradation. Chemical degradation of peptides results from a number of mechanisms including oxidation, water-mediated degradation, and reaction with aldehydes or reducing sugars. The ideal excipient or combination of excipients will be non-hygroscopic, have few or no reducing sugars, and be substantially free of contaminants such as iron, peroxide, and formaldehyde. The formulations of the invention are preferably substantially free of water. In this context “substantially” free of water means that the water content of the formulation at the time of packaging is preferably less than 7%, less than 5%, less than 1%, or less than 0.5% of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment the amount of water is between 0.1 to 5% of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment, the amount of water in the formulation of the invention manufactured through a spray-coating process is less than 0.5% (e.g., about 0.47%). In the context of the present formulations, the term “stable” or “stabilized” refers to the resistance of the peptide to chemical or physical degradation over time. Preferably, a stable formulation of the invention retains an amount of the peptide in the formulation over a period of time that is at least 90%, preferably at least 95%, and most preferably at least 99% the amount of peptide initially present in the formulation. In one embodiment, a stable formulation of the invention, over a period of time (e.g., 18 month), has an increase in the total impurity content not greater than 8%, not greater than 7%, not greater than 6%, not greater than 5%, not greater than 4%, not greater than 3%, not greater than 2%, or not greater than 1%. In one embodiment, the peptide is chemically stable in the formulation for a period of time that is at least 18 months, at least 20 months, or at least 24 months when stored at 25 degrees Celsius (25 C) and 60% relative humidity. In one embodiment, the peptide is chemically stable in the formulation for a period of time that is at least 18 months, at least 20 months, or at least 24 months when stored at 2-8 degrees Celsius (2-8 C). In one embodiment, the peptide is chemically stable in the formulation for a period of time that is at least 3 months, 12 months, 18 months and preferably 24 months when stored at 25 degrees Celsius (25 C) and 60% relative humidity. In one embodiment, the peptide is chemically stable in the formulation for a period of time that is at least 3 months, 18 months and preferably 24 months when stored at 30 degrees Celsius (30 C). The low-dose formulations of the invention comprise an amount of at least one GCC agonist peptide per unit dose that is less than 10 mg. It is especially advantageous to formulate oral compositions in unit dosage form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage. The term “unit dosage form” as used herein refers to physically discrete units suited as unitary dosages for the subject to be treated; each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active compound calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect in association with the required pharmaceutical carrier. The specification for the dosage unit forms of the invention are dictated by and directly dependent on the unique characteristics of the active compound and the particular therapeutic effect to be achieved. In one embodiment, the unit dosage form is a tablet or a capsule. In one embodiment of the low-dose formulations of the invention, the amount of GCC agonist peptide per unit dose is from 0.01 mg to 10 mg. In one embodiment, the amount of GCC agonist peptide per unit dose is 0.1 mg, 0.3 mg, 0.6 mg, 1.0 mg, 3.0 mg, 6.0 mg, 9.0 mg, 9.5 mg, or 10 mg. In one embodiment, the low-dose formulation contains a carrier that is non-hygroscopic. In one embodiment, the carrier is selected from mannitol and maltose (e.g., ADVANTOSE 100). In one embodiment, the carrier is cellulose, preferably microcrystalline cellulose (e.g., Avicel PH 102, low moisture Avicel PH 112, Avicel PH 200, or Celphere SCP-100). In one embodiment, the carrier is calcium phosphate or calcium sulphate. In another embodiment, the carrier is a saccharide. The term “saccharide” as used herein also refers to polysaccharides. Thus, the term saccharide is meant to include polysaccharides. In one embodiment, the saccharide is selected from mannitol, trehalose, lactose, sucrose, sorbitol, and maltose. In a preferred embodiment, the saccharide is mannitol. Preferably the saccharide has a low water content, a small particle size and a narrow particle-size distribution. Carriers having small particle sizes, and/or spherical shape, and narrow size distribution are preferred. Particles of less than 20 microns have a relatively high surface area to volume ratio causing inter-particle attractive forces to dominate and resist bulk flow. Larger particles (greater than 100 microns) tend to roll or slide over one another and exhibit superior bulk flow properties compared with small particles. A narrow particle-size distribution reduces particle packing and increases flow. In one embodiment, the particles are between 20 and 500 microns in size (as measured across the largest diameter of the particle, on average). In one embodiment, a small particle size and a narrow particle size range refers to particles having a size range of from 20-300 microns, 50-200 microns, or 75-150 microns. In certain embodiments, the carrier has a substantially spherical shape such as can be obtained with a spray drying process. In one embodiment, the low-dose formulation is a solid formulation and the unit dose is in the form of a tablet or capsule. In one embodiment, the low-dose formulation is a liquid formulation and the unit dosage form is a liquid-filled capsule. In one embodiment, the liquid formulation in the form of a solution or suspension of the GCC agonist peptide in an lipophilic liquid. Examples of suitable liquids include medium chain triglycerides (e.g., LABRAFAC Lipophile), propylene glycol dicaprylocaprate (e.g., LABRAFAC PG), vitamin E (e.g., a tocopherol), PEG 400 (e.g., Polyethylene glycol low M.W. (liquid)), propylene glycol, soybean oil, and Castor oil. In one embodiment, the liquid is selected from the group consisting of medium chain triglycerides, propylene glycol dicaprylocaprate, vitamin E, and soybean oil. In one embodiment, the refined specialty oil is selected from Arachis oil, Castor oil, cottonseed oil, maize (corn) oil, olive oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. In one embodiment, the medium chain triglyceride or related ester is AKOMED E, AKOMED R, CAPTEX 355, LABRAFAC CC, LABRAFAC PG, LAUROGLYCOL FCC, MIGLYOL 810, MIGLYOL 812, MIGLYOL 829, MIGLYOL 840, and SOFTISAN 645. A formulation according to the invention may be contained in a blister pack. In a particular embodiment, the powder, tablet, or capsule comprising the formulation is contained in a blister pack. Preferably, the blister pack is made of a material that allows only minimal permeation by water vapor and oxygen. In one embodiment the blister pack is comprised of a metal foil. In one embodiment, the blister pack is comprised of ACLAR. In one embodiment, the container of the blister pack is flushed with an inert gas such as nitrogen or argon. In one embodiment, the container further includes a desiccant. In one embodiment, the desiccant is calcium chloride. In one embodiment the desiccant is a molecular sieve. While any GCC agonist known in the art can be formulated according to the present invention, analogs of uroguanylin and bacterial ST peptides are preferred. In certain embodiments, the uroguanylin and bacterial ST peptide analogs have superior properties compared to naturally occurring, or “wild-type” peptides. For example, the uroguanylin and bacterial ST peptides for use in the present invention are preferably modified to increase their resistance to degradation at the N-terminus and C-terminus from carboxypeptidases, aminopeptidases, and/or by other proteolytic enzymes present in the stimulated human intestinal juices and human gastric juices. In certain embodiments, the GCC agonist formulation comprises a peptide consisting essentially of an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 1-249. In a preferred embodiment, the peptide consists essentially of an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 1, 8, 9, 55 and 56. The term “consists essentially of” refers to a peptide that is identical to the reference peptide in its amino acid sequence or to a peptide that does not differ substantially in terms of either structure or function from the reference peptide. A peptide differs substantially from the reference peptide if its primary amino acid sequence varies by more than three amino acids from the reference peptide or if its activation of cellular cGMP production is reduced by more than 50% compared to the reference peptide. Preferably, substantially similar peptides differ by no more than two amino acids and not by more than about 25% with respect to activating cGMP production. In preferred embodiments, the GCC agonist is a peptide comprising at least 12 amino acid residues, and most preferably comprising between 12 and 26 amino acids. Non-limiting examples of such analogs of uroguanylin and bacterial ST peptides are described in Section 1.2 below. The invention provides methods for treating or preventing certain diseases and disorders and methods for increasing gastrointestinal motility in a subject in need thereof by administering an effective amount of a GCC agonist formulation to the subject. The term “treating” as used herein refers to a reduction, a partial improvement, amelioration, or a mitigation of at least one clinical symptom associated with the gastrointestinal disorders being treated. The term “preventing” refers to an inhibition or delay in the onset or progression of at least one clinical symptom associated with the gastrointestinal disorders to be prevented. The term “effective amount” as used herein refers to an amount that provides some improvement or benefit to the subject. In certain embodiments, an effective amount is an amount that provides some alleviation, mitigation, and/or decrease in at least one clinical symptom of the gastrointestinal disorder to be treated. In other embodiments, the effective amount is the amount that provides some inhibition or delay in the onset or progression of at least one clinical symptom associated with the gastrointestinal disorder to be prevented. The therapeutic effects need not be complete or curative, as long as some benefit is provided to the subject. The term “subject” preferably refers to a human subject but may also refer to a non-human primate or other mammal preferably selected from among a mouse, a rat, a dog, a cat, a cow, a horse, or a pig. In accordance with the methods of the present invention, the GCC agonist formulation can be administered alone or in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents to prevent or treat inflammation, cancer and other disorders, particularly of the gastrointestinal tract. In a preferred embodiment, the GCC agonist formulation is administered for the treatment of chronic constipation. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist formulation is administered in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents selected from the group consisting of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, cyclic nucleotides (such as cGMP and cAMP), a laxative (such as SENNA, METAMUCIL, MIRALAX, PEG, or calcium polycarbophil), a stool softener, an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy for IBD (such as REMICADE, ENBREL, or HUMAIRA), and anti-inflammatory drugs (such as COX-2 inhibitors, sulfasalazine, 5-ASA derivatives and NSAIDS). In certain embodiments, the GCC agonist formulation is administered in combination with an effective dose of an inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (cGMP-PDE) either concurrently or sequentially with said GCC agonist. cGMP-PDE inhibitors include, for example, suldinac sulfone, zaprinast, motapizone, vardenifil, and sildenafil. In another embodiment, the GCC agonist formulation is administered in combination with inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide transporters. 1.1 Formulations The formulations of the invention contain one or more GCC agonist peptides described herein, in combination with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers (also referred to as diluents) and/or excipients. In a preferred embodiment, the formulations of the invention include an inert carrier. The inert carrier is preferably non-hygroscopic. In one embodiment, the carrier in the formulation contains few or no reducing sugars and is substantially free of contaminants including, but not limited to, iron, peroxide, and formaldehyde. In one embodiment, the carrier is selected from the group consisting of sorbitol, mannitol, EMDEX, and starch. In one embodiment, the carrier is mannitol (e.g., MANNOGEM) or microcrystalline cellulose (e.g. PROSOLV, CELPHERE, CELPHERE beads). The low-dose formulations of the invention contain no greater than 10 mg per unit dose of a GCC agonist peptide. The remainder of the formulation is comprised of the carrier and one or more optional excipients. In one embodiment, the amount of carrier is at least 90% of the total weight of the formulation. In another embodiment, the amount of carrier is at least 95% or at least 98% of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment, the amount of carrier is between 90 and 99.9% of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment, the one or more optional excipients comprise a disintegrant which is present at 1 to 5% of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment, the one or more optional excipients comprise a lubricant which is present at 0.02 to 5% of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment, the one or more optional excipients comprise an amino acid such as arginine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, phenylalanine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glutamine, methionine, asparagine, tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, or glycine, which is present at 0.1 to 4% (e.g., 0.1-1%) of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment, the molar ratio between the amino acid and the GCC agonist peptide is from about 2:1 to about 30:1 or about 2:1 to about 20:1 (e.g., 5:1). In one embodiment, the one or more optional excipients comprise a stabilizer such as a divalent cation salt, more specifically, a water-soluble divalent cation salt (e.g., calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, manganese chloride, or calcium ascorbate), which is present at 0.1 to 12% (e.g., 0.1-4%) of the total weight of the formulation. In one embodiment, the molar ratio between the salt and the GCC agonist peptide is from about 5:1 to about 20:1 (e.g., 10:1). The formulations may contain other additives as needed, including for example lactose, glucose, fructose, galactose, trehalose, sucrose, maltose, raffnose, maltitol, melezitose, stachyose, lactitol, palatinite, starch, xylitol, mannitol, myoinositol, and the like, and hydrates thereof, and amino acids, for example alanine, glycine and betaine, and polypeptides and proteins, for example albumen. Further examples of pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and excipients include, but are not limited to binders, fillers, disintegrants, lubricants, anti-microbial agents, antioxidant, and coating agents such as: BINDERS: corn starch, potato starch, other starches, gelatin, natural and synthetic gums such as acacia, xanthan, sodium alginate, alginic acid, other alginates, powdered tragacanth, guar gum, cellulose and its derivatives (e.g., ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, carboxymethyl cellulose calcium, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (e.g., povidone, crospovidone, copovidone, etc), methyl cellulose, Methocel, pre-gelatinized starch (e.g., STARCH 15000 and STARCH 1500 LM®, sold by Colorcon, Ltd.), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose (FMC Corporation, Marcus Hook, Pa., USA), Emdex, Plasdone, or mixtures thereof, FILLERS: talc, calcium carbonate (e.g., granules or powder), dibasic calcium phosphate, tribasic calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate (e.g., granules or powder), microcrystalline cellulose, powdered cellulose, dextrates, kaolin, mannitol, silicic acid, sorbitol, starch, pre-gelatinized starch, dextrose, fructose, honey, lactose anhydrate, lactose monohydrate, lactose and aspartame, lactose and cellulose, lactose and microcrystalline cellulose, maltodextrin, maltose, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose &amp; guar gum, molasses, sucrose, or mixtures thereof, DISINTEGRANTS: agar-agar, alginic acid, calcium carbonate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, polacrilin potassium, sodium starch glycolate (such as Explotab), potato or tapioca starch, other starches, pre-gelatinized starch, clays, other algins, other celluloses, gums (like gellan), low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, ployplasdone, or mixtures thereof, LUBRICANTS: calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, mineral oil, light mineral oil, glycerin, sorbitol, mannitol, polyethylene glycol, other glycols, compritol, stearic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium stearyl fumarate (such as Pruv), vegetable based fatty acids lubricant, talc, hydrogenated vegetable oil (e.g., peanut oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil), zinc stearate, ethyl oleate, ethyl laurate, agar, syloid silica gel (AEROSIL 200, W.R. Grace Co., Baltimore, Md. USA), a coagulated aerosol of synthetic silica (Deaussa Co., Piano, Tex. USA), a pyrogenic silicon dioxide (CAB—O-SIL, Cabot Co., Boston, Mass. USA), or mixtures thereof, ANTI-CAKING AGENTS: calcium silicate, magnesium silicate, silicon dioxide, colloidal silicon dioxide, talc, or mixtures thereof, ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, butyl paraben, cetylpyridinium chloride, cresol, chlorobutanol, dehydroacetic acid, ethylparaben, methylparaben, phenol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenoxyethanol, phenylmercuric acetate, phenylmercuric nitrate, potassium sorbate, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, sodium propionate, sorbic acid, thimersol, thymo, or mixtures thereof, ANTOXIDANTS: ascorbic acid, BHA, BHT, EDTA, or mixture thereof, and COATING AGENTS: sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate phthalate, ethylcellulose, gelatin, pharmaceutical glaze, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (hypromellose), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate, methylcellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl acetate phthalate, shellac, sucrose, titanium dioxide, carnauba wax, microcrystalline wax, gellan gum, maltodextrin, methacrylates, microcrystalline cellulose and carrageenan or mixtures thereof. The formulation can also include other excipients and categories thereof including but not limited to Pluronic®, Poloxamers (such as Lutrol® and Poloxamer 188), ascorbic acid, glutathione, protease inhibitors (e.g. soybean trypsin inhibitor, organic acids), pH lowering agents, creams and lotions (like maltodextrin and carrageenans); materials for chewable tablets (like dextrose, fructose, lactose monohydrate, lactose and aspartame, lactose and cellulose, maltodextrin, maltose, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose and guar gum, sorbitol crystalline); parenterals (like mannitol and povidone); plasticizers (like dibutyl sebacate, plasticizers for coatings, polyvinylacetate phthalate); powder lubricants (like glyceryl behenate); soft gelatin capsules (like sorbitol special solution); spheres for coating (like sugar spheres); spheronization agents (like glyceryl behenate and microcrystalline cellulose); suspending/gelling agents (like carrageenan, gellan gum, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, xanthan gum); sweeteners (like aspartame, aspartame and lactose, dextrose, fructose, honey, maltodextrin, maltose, mannitol, molasses, sorbitol crystalline, sorbitol special solution, sucrose); wet granulation agents (like calcium carbonate, lactose anhydrous, lactose monohydrate, maltodextrin, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, starch), caramel, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, cherry cream flavor and cherry flavor, citric acid anhydrous, citric acid, confectioner's sugar, D&C Red No. 33, D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake, disodium edetate, ethyl alcohol 15%, FD&C Yellow No. 6 aluminum lake, FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C blue no. 2 aluminum lake, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6, FD&C Yellow No. 10, glycerol palmitostearate, glyceryl monostearate, indigo carmine, lecithin, manitol, methyl and propyl parabens, mono ammonium glycyrrhizinate, natural and artificial orange flavor, pharmaceutical glaze, poloxamer 188, Polydextrose, polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80, polyvidone, pregelatinized corn starch, pregelatinized starch, red iron oxide, saccharin sodium, sodium carboxymethyl ether, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, sodium phosphate, strawberry flavor, synthetic black iron oxide, synthetic red iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and white wax. Solid oral dosage forms may optionally be treated with coating systems (e.g. Opadry® fx film coating system, for example Opadry® blue (OY-LS-20921), Opadry® white (YS-2-7063), Opadry® white (YS-1-7040), and black ink (S-1-8 106). The agents either in their free form or as a salt can be combined with a polymer such as polylactic-glycoloic acid (PLGA), poly-(I)-lactic-glycolic-tartaric acid (P(I)LGT) (WO 01/12233), polyglycolic acid (U.S. Pat. No. 3,773,919), polylactic acid (U.S. Pat. No. 4,767,628), poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(alkylene oxide) (U.S. 20030068384) to create a sustained release formulation. Other sustained release formulations and polymers for use in the compositions and methods of the invention are described in EP 0 467 389 A2, WO 93/24150, U.S. Pat. No. 5,612,052, WO 97/40085, WO 03/075887, WO 01/01964A2, U.S. Pat. No. 5,922,356, WO 94/155587, WO 02/074247A2, WO 98/25642, U.S. Pat. No. 5,968,895, U.S. Pat. No. 6,180,608, U.S. 20030171296, U.S. 20020176841, U.S. Pat. No. 5,672,659, U.S. Pat. No. 5,893,985, U.S. Pat. No. 5,134,122, U.S. Pat. No. 5,192,741, U.S. Pat. No. 5,192,741, U.S. Pat. No. 4,668,506, U.S. Pat. No. 4,713,244, U.S. Pat. No. 5,445,832 U.S. Pat. No. 4,931,279, U.S. Pat. No. 5,980,945, WO 02/058672, WO 97/26015, WO 97/04744, and US20020019446. In such sustained release formulations microparticles (Delie and Blanco-Prieto 2005 Molecule 10:65-80) of polypeptide are combined with microparticles of polymer. U.S. 6,011,0 1 and WO 94/06452 describe a sustained release formulation providing either polyethylene glycols (i.e. PEG 300 and PEG 400) or triacetin. WO 03/053401 describes a formulation which may both enhance bioavailability and provide controlled release of the agent within the GI tract. Additional controlled release formulations are described in WO 02/38129, EP 326151, U.S. Pat. No. 5,236,704, WO 02/30398, WO 98/13029; U.S. 20030064105, U.S. 20030138488A1, U.S. 20030216307A1, U.S. Pat. No. 6,667,060, WO 01/49249, WO 01/49311, WO 01/49249, WO 01/49311, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,877,224 materials which may include those described in WO04041195 (including the seal and enteric coating described therein) and pH-sensitive coatings that achieve delivery in the colon including those described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,910,021 and WO9001329. U.S. Pat. No. 4,910,021 describes using a pH-sensitive material to coat a capsule. WO9001329 describes using pH-sensitive coatings on beads containing acid, where the acid in the bead core prolongs dissolution of the pH-sensitive coating. U.S. Pat. No. 5,175,003 discloses a dual mechanism polymer mixture composed of pH-sensitive enteric materials and film-forming plasticizers capable of conferring permeability to the enteric material, for use in drug-delivery systems; a matrix pellet composed of a dual mechanism polymer mixture permeated with a drug and sometimes covering a pharmaceutically neutral nucleus; a membrane-coated pellet comprising a matrix pellet coated with a dual mechanism polymer mixture envelope of the same or different composition; and a pharmaceutical dosage form containing matrix pellets. The matrix pellet releases acid-soluble drugs by diffusion in acid pH and by disintegration at pH levels of nominally about 5.0 or higher. The GCC peptides described herein may be formulated in the pH triggered targeted control release systems described in WO04052339. The agents described herein may be formulated according to the methodology described in any of WO03105812 (extruded hyrdratable polymers); WO0243767 (enzyme cleavable membrane translocators); WO03007913 and WO03086297 (mucoadhesive systems); WO02072075 (bilayer laminated formulation comprising pH lowering agent and absorption enhancer); WO04064769 (amidated polypeptides); WO05063156 (solid lipid suspension with pseudotropic and/or thixotropic properties upon melting); WO03035029 and WO03035041 (erodible, gastric retentive dosage forms); U.S. Pat. No. 5,007,790 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,972,389 (sustained release dosage forms); WO041 1271 1 (oral extended release compositions); WO05027878, WO02072033, and WO02072034 (delayed release compositions with natural or synthetic gum); WO05030182 (controlled release formulations with an ascending rate of release); WO05048998 (microencapsulation system); U.S. Pat. No. 5,952,314 (biopolymer); U.S. Pat. No. 5,108,758 (glassy amylose matrix delivery); U.S. Pat. No. 5,840,860 (modified starch based delivery). JP10324642 (delivery system comprising chitosan and gastric resistant material such as wheat gliadin or zein); U.S. Pat. No. 5,866,619 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,368,629 (saccharide containing polymer); U.S. Pat. No. 6,531,152 (describes a drug delivery system containing a water soluble core (Ca pectinate or other water-insoluble polymers) and outer coat which bursts (e.g. hydrophobic polymer-Eudragrit)); U.S. Pat. No. 6,234,464; U.S. Pat. No. 6,403,130 (coating with polymer containing casein and high methoxy pectin; WO0174 175 (Maillard reaction product); WO05063206 (solubility increasing formulation); WO040 19872 (transferring fusion proteins). The GCC peptides described herein may be formulated using gastrointestinal retention system technology (GIRES; Merrion Pharmaceuticals). GIRES comprises a controlled-release dosage form inside an inflatable pouch, which is placed in a drug capsule for oral administration. The capsule shell can be a HPMC capsule shell or Gelatin capsule shell. Upon dissolution of the capsule, a gas-generating system inflates the pouch in the stomach where it is retained for 16-24 hours, all the time releasing agents described herein. The GCC peptides described herein can also be formulated using the multi matrix system technology (MMX). The GCC peptides described herein can be formulated in an osmotic device including the ones disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,503,030, U.S. Pat. No. 5,609,590 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,358,502. U.S. Pat. No. 4,503,030 discloses an osmotic device for dispensing a drug to certain pH regions of the gastrointestinal tract. More particularly, the invention relates to an osmotic device comprising a wall formed of a semi-permeable pH sensitive composition that surrounds a compartment containing a drug, with a passageway through the wall connecting the exterior of the device with the compartment. The device delivers the drug at a controlled rate in the region of the gastrointestinal tract having a pH of less than 3.5, and the device self-destructs and releases all its drug in the region of the gastrointestinal tract having a pH greater than 3.5, thereby providing total availability for drug absorption. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,609,590 and 5,358,502 disclose an osmotic bursting device for dispensing a beneficial agent to an aqueous environment. The device comprises a beneficial agent and osmagent surrounded at least in part by a semi-permeable membrane. The beneficial agent may also function as the osmagent. The semi-permeable membrane is permeable to water and substantially impermeable to the beneficial agent and osmagent. A trigger means is attached to the semi-permeable membrane (e.g., joins two capsule halves). The trigger means is activated by a pH of from 3 to 9 and triggers the eventual, but sudden, delivery of the beneficial agent. These devices enable the pH-triggered release of the beneficial agent core as a bolus by osmotic bursting. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, mannitol, silicified microcrystalline cellulose, sodicum starch glycolate, and sodium stearyl fumarate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4%, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 0.23% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The mannitol is at a concentration of at least 60% w/w, at least 65% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 75% w/w, or at least 80% w/w. In some embodiments the mannitol is present at about 79% w/w (e.g., 79.77%). The mannitol is preferably Mannogem EZ. The silicified microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 5% w/w, at least 10% w/w, or at least 15% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the silicified microcrystalline cellulose is about 15% w/w. The silicified microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Prosolv SMCC 90 LM. The sodicum starch glycolate is at a concentration of at least 1% w/w, at least 2% w/w, at least 3% w/w, or at least 4% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the sodicum starch glycolate is about 4% w/w. The sodicum starch glycolate is preferably Explotab. The sodium stearyl fumarate is at a concentration of at least 0.2% w/w, at least 0.5% w/w, at least 0.7% w/w, at least 0.8% w/w, at least 0.9, or at least 1% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the sodium stearyl fumarate is about 1% w/w. The sodium stearyl fumarate is preferably Pruv. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, silicified microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 0.3% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The silicified microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 10% w/w, at least 20% w/w, at least 30% w/w, at least 40% w/w, at least 50% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 80% w/w, at least 90% w/w, or at least 95% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the silicified microcrystalline cellulose is about 95.7% w/w. The silicified microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Prosolv SMCC 90 HD. The sodicum starch glycolate is at a concentration of at least 1% w/w, at least 2% w/w, at least 3% w/w, or at least 4% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the sodicum starch glycolate is 4% w/w. The sodicum starch glycolate is preferably Explotab. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, microcrystalline cellulose, calcium chloride dihydrate, leucine, and hyrpomellose. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 0.3246% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 50% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 80% w/w, at least 90% w/w, at least 95% w/w, or at least 99% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is about 99.10% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Celphere SCP-100. The calcium chloride dihydrate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the calcium chloride dihydrate is about 0.2622% w/w. The leucine is at a concentration of at least 0.05% w/w, at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.12% w/w, or at least 0.15% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of leucine is about 0.12% w/w. The hypromellose is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the hypromellose is about 0.2% w/w. The hypromellose is preferably Methocel E5 PremLV. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, microcrystalline cellulose, calcium chloride dihydrate, leucine, hypromellose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 0.36% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 50% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 80% w/w, at least 90% w/w, at least 95% w/w, or at least 99% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is about 98.75% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 102. The calcium chloride dihydrate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, at least 0.25% w/w, or at least 0.3% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the calcium chloride dihydrate is about 0.29% w/w. The leucine is at a concentration of at least 0.05% w/w, at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.12% w/w, or at least 0.15% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of leucine is about 0.13% w/w. The hypromellose is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the hypromellose is about 0.22% w/w. The hypromellose is preferably Methocel E5 PremLV. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 0.32% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 50% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 80% w/w, at least 90% w/w, at least 95% w/w, or at least 99% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is about 99.43% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 102. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 0.32% w/w, about 1.18% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 30% w/w, at least 40% w/w, at least 50% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 80% w/w, at least 90% w/w, at least 95% w/w, or at least 99% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is about 98.57% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 102. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 1.18% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 30% w/w, at least 40% w/w, at least 50% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 80% w/w, at least 90% w/w, at least 95% w/w, or at least 99% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is about 97.09% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 112. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, trehalose granules, hypromellose, histidine, calcium ascorbate, trehalose powder, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 1.18% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The trehalose granules are at a concentration of at least 50% w/w, at least 55% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 65% w/w, at least 70% w/w, or at least 75% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the trehalose granules is 55-75% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the trehalose granules is 70.48% w/w. The hypromellose is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, at least 0.3% w/w, at least 0.4% w/w, or at least 0.5% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the hypromellose is 0.2-2% w/w. In a particular embodiment the concentration of the hypromellose about 0.5% w/w. The hypromellose is preferably Methocel ES Premium LV. The histine is a concentration of at least 0.6% w/w, at least 0.8% w/w, at least 0.9% w/w, at least 1% w/w, at least 3% w/w, or at least 5% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the histidine is 1-6% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the arginine is 1.48% w/w. The calcium ascorbate is at a concentration of at least 0.05% w/w, at least 0.07% w/w, at least 0.09% w/w, or at least 0.1% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the calcium ascorbate is 0.05-10% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the calcium ascorbate is about 0.1% w/w. The trehalose powder is at a concentration of at least 0.5% w/w, at least 0.7% w/w, at least 0.8% w/w, at least 0.9% w/w, at least 1% w/w, or at least 1.2% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the trehalose powder is 0.5-4% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the trehalose powder is 1.02% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 10% w/w, at least 20% w/w, or at least 25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is 20-40% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is 25% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 200. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is 0.2-1% w/w. In a particular embodiment the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, trehalose granules, hypromellose, arginine, calcium ascorbate, trehalose powder, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 1.17% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The trehalose granules are at a concentration of at least 50% w/w, at least 55% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 65% w/w, at least 70% w/w, or at least 75% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the trehalose granules is 55-75% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the trehalose granules is 70.31% w/w. The hypromellose is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, at least 0.3% w/w, at least 0.4% w/w, or at least 0.5% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the hypromellose is 0.2-2% w/w. In a particular embodiment the concentration of the hypromellose about 0.5% w/w. The hypromellose is preferably Methocel ES Premium LV. The arginine is a concentration of at least 0.5% w/w, at least 1% w/w, at least 1.5% w/w, or at least 2% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the arginine is 1-6% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the arginine is 1.66% w/w. The calcium ascorbate is at a concentration of at least 0.05% w/w, at least 0.07% w/w, at least 0.09% w/w, or at least 0.1% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the calcium ascorbate is 0.05-10% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the calcium ascorbate is about 0.1% w/w. The trehalose powder is at a concentration of at least 0.5% w/w, at least 0.7% w/w, at least 0.8% w/w, at least 0.9% w/w, at least 1% w/w, or at least 1.2% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the trehalose powder is 0.5-4% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the trehalose powder is 1.02% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 10% w/w, at least 20% w/w, or at least 25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is 20-40% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is 25% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 200. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is 0.2-1% w/w. In a particular embodiment the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, trehalose granules, hypromellose, TRIS, calcium ascorbate, trehalose powder, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 1.17% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The trehalose granules are at a concentration of at least 50% w/w, at least 55% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 65% w/w, at least 70% w/w, or at least 75% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the trehalose granules is 55-75% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the trehalose granules is 70.81% w/w. The hypromellose is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, at least 0.3% w/w, at least 0.4% w/w, or at least 0.5% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the hypromellose is 0.2-2% w/w. In a particular embodiment the concentration of the hypromellose about 0.5% w/w. The hypromellose is preferably Methocel ES Premium LV. The TRIS is a concentration of at least 0.6% w/w, at least 0.8% w/w, at least 0.9% w/w, or at least 1% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the TRIS is 0.5-6% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the arginine is 1.15% w/w. The calcium ascorbate is at a concentration of at least 0.05% w/w, at least 0.07% w/w, at least 0.1% w/w, or at least 1% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the calcium ascorbate is 0.05-10% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the calcium ascorbate is about 0.1% w/w. The trehalose powder is at a concentration of at least 0.5% w/w, at least 0.7% w/w, at least 0.8% w/w, at least 0.9% w/w, at least 1% w/w, or at least 1.2% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the trehalose powder is 0.5-4% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the trehalose powder is 1.02% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 10% w/w, at least 20% w/w, or at least 25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is 20-40% w/w. In a particular embodiment, the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is 25% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 200. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is 0.2-1% w/w. In a particular embodiment the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 1.10% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 30% w/w, at least 40% w/w, at least 50% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 80% w/w, at least 90% w/w, at least 95% w/w, or at least 99% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is about 98.64% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 102. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. In one embodiment the formulation contains a GCC agonist peptide, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The GCC agonist is at a concentration of less than 5% w/w, less than 4% w/w, less than 3% w/w, less than 2% w/w, less than 1% w/w, less than 0.5% w/w, or less than 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the GCC peptide is at a concentration of about 3.32% w/w. The GCC peptide is preferably SEQ NO: 1 or SEQ NO: 9. The microcrystalline cellulose is at a concentration of at least 30% w/w, at least 40% w/w, at least 50% w/w, at least 60% w/w, at least 70% w/w, at least 80% w/w, at least 90% w/w, at least 95% w/w, or at least 99% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the microcrystalline cellulose is about 96.43% w/w. The microcrystalline cellulose is preferably Avicel PH 102. The magnesium stearate is at a concentration of at least 0.1% w/w, at least 0.15% w/w, at least 0.2% w/w, or at least 0.25% w/w. In some embodiments the concentration of the magnesium stearate is about 0.25% w/w. 1.2 GCC Agonists The GCC agonists for use in the formulations and methods of the invention bind to guanylate cyclase C and stimulate intracellular production of cGMP. Optionally, the GCC agonists induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of epithelial cells. The term, “guanylate cyclase C” refers to a transmembrane form of guanylate cyclase that acts as the intestinal receptor for the heat-stable toxin (ST) peptides secreted by enteric bacteria. Guanylate cyclase C is also the receptor for the naturally occurring peptides guanylin and uroguanylin. The possibility that there may be different receptors for each of these peptides has not been excluded. Hence, the term “guanylate cyclase C” may also encompass a class of transmembrane guanylate cyclase receptors expressed on epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal mucosa. The term “GCC agonist” refers to both peptides and non-peptide compounds such as that bind to an intestinal guanylate cyclase C and stimulate the intracellular production of cGMP. Where the GCC agonist is a peptide, the term encompasses biologically active fragments of such peptides and pro-peptides that bind to guanylate cyclase C and stimulate the intracellular production of cGMP. Preferably, the GCC agonists for use in the formulations and methods of the invention stimulate intracellular cGMP production at higher levels than naturally occurring GCC agonists such as uroguanylin, guanylin, and ST peptides. In some embodiments, the GCC agonists stimulate intracellular cGMP production at higher levels than the peptide designated SP-304 (SEQ ID NO:1). In specific embodiments, a GCC agonist for use in the formulations and methods of the invention stimulates 5% , 10% , 20% , 30% , 40% , 50%, 75% , 90% or more intracellular cGMP compared to uroguanylin, guanylin, lymphoguanylin, linaclotide, ST peptides, or SP-304. The terms “induce” and “stimulate” are used interchangeably throughout the specification. Preferably, the GCC agonists for use in the formulations and methods of the invention are more stable than naturally occurring GCC agonists such as uroguanylin, guanylin, and ST peptides. In some embodiments, the GCC agonists are more stable than the peptide designated SP-304. “Stability” in this context refers to resistance to degradation in gastrointestinal fluid and/or intestinal fluid (or simulated gastrointestinal or intestinal fluids) compared to the reference peptide. For example, the GCC agonists for use in the formulations and methods of the invention preferably degrade 2%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75%, 90% or less compared to naturally occurring GCC angonists and/or SP-304. The GCC agonists for use in the formulations and methods of the invention are preferably peptides. In some embodiments, the GCC agonist peptide is less than 30 amino acids in length. In particular embodiments, the GCC agonist peptide is less than or equal to 30, 25, 20, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, or 5 amino acids in length. Examples of GCC agonist peptides for use in the formulations and methods of the invention include those described in U.S. Ser. No. 12/133,344, filed Jun. 4, 2008, Ser. No. 12/478,505, filed Jun. 4, 2009; Ser. No. 12/478,511, filed Jun. 4, 2009; Ser. No. 12/504,288, filed Jul. 16, 2009; and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/933,194, filed Jun. 4, 2007; 61/058,888, filed Jun. 4, 2008; 61/058,892, filed Jun. 4, 2008; and 61/081,289, filed Jul. 16, 2008, each of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Specific examples of GCC agonist peptides for use in the formulations and methods of the invention include those described in Tables I-VII below. As used Tables I-VII, the terms “PEG3” or “3PEG” refer to a polyethylene glycol such as aminoethyloxy-ethyloxy-acetic acid (AeeA), and polymers thereof. The term “X aa ” refers to any natural or unnatural amino acid or amino acid analogue. The term “M aa ” refers to a cysteine (Cys), penicillamine (Pen) homocysteine, or 3-mercaptoproline. The term “Xaa n1 ” is meant to denote an amino acid sequence of any natural or unnatural amino acid or amino acid analogue that is one, two or three residues in length; Xaa n2 is meant to denote an amino acid sequence that is zero or one residue in length; and Xaa n3 is meant to denote an amino acid sequence zero, one, two, three, four, five or six residues in length. Additionally, any amino acid represented by Xaa, Xaa n1 , Xaa n2 , or Xaa n3 may be an L-amino acid, a D-amino acid, a methylated amino acid or any combination of thereof. Optionally, any GCC agonist peptide represented by Formulas I to XX in the tables may contain on or more polyethylene glycol residues at the N-terminus, C-terminus or both. In certain embodiments, a GCC agonist formulation of the invention comprises a peptide selected from SEQ ID NOs: 1-249, the sequences of which are set forth below in Tables I to VII below. In one embodiment, a GCC agonist formulation comprises the peptide designated by SEQ ID NOs:1, 8, 9, 55, or 56. In certain embodiments, a GCC agonist formulation of the invention comprises a peptide that is substantially equivalent to a peptide selected from SEQ ID NOs: 1-249. The term “substantially equivalent” refers to a peptide that has an amino acid sequence equivalent to that of the binding domain where certain residues may be deleted or replaced with other amino acids without impairing the peptide's ability to bind to an intestinal guanylate cyclase receptor and stimulate fluid and electrolyte transport. 1.2.1 GCC Agonist Peptides In a preferred embodiment, the GCC agonists for use in the formulations and methods of the invention are GCC agonist peptides. In certain embodiments, the GCC agonist peptides are analogues of uroguanylin or a bacterial ST peptide. Uroguanylin is a circulating peptide hormone with natriuretic activity. An ST peptide is a member of a family of heat stable enterotoxins (ST peptides) secreted by pathogenic strains of E. coli and other enteric bacteria that activate guanylate cyclase receptor and cause secretory diarrhea. Unlike bacterial ST peptides, the binding of uroguanylin to guanylate cyclase receptor is dependent on the physiological pH of the gut. Therefore, uroguanylin is expected to regulate fluid and electrolyte transport in a pH dependent manner and without causing severe diarrhea. The GCC agonist peptides for use in the formulations and methods of the invention can be polymers of L-amino acids, D-amino acids, or a combination of both. For example, in various embodiments, the peptides are D retro-inverso peptides. The term “retro-inverso isomer” refers to an isomer of a linear peptide in which the direction of the sequence is reversed and the chirality of each amino acid residue is inverted. See, e.g., Jameson et al., Nature, 368, 744-746 (1994); Brady et al., Nature, 368, 692-693 (1994). The net result of combining D-enantiomers and reverse synthesis is that the positions of carbonyl and amino groups in each amide bond are exchanged, while the position of the side-chain groups at each alpha carbon is preserved. Unless specifically stated otherwise, it is presumed that any given L-amino acid sequence of the invention may be made into a D retro-inverso peptide by synthesizing a reverse of the sequence for the corresponding native L-amino acid sequence. The GCC agonist peptides for use in the formulations and methods of the invention are able to induce intracellular cGMP production in cells and tissues expressing guanylate cyclase C. In certain embodiments, the GCC agonist peptide stimulates 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75%, 90% or more intracellular cGMP compared to naturally occurring GCC agonists such as uroguanylin, guanylin, or ST peptides. Optionally, the GCC agonist peptide stimulates 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75%, 90% or more intracellular cGMP compared SP-304 (SEQ ID NO:1). In further embodiments, the GCC agonist peptide stimulates apoptosis, e.g., programmed cell death, or activate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In some embodiments, the GCC agonist peptides for use in the formulations and methods of the invention are more stable than naturally occurring GCC agonists and/or SP-304 (SEQ ID NO:1), SP-339 (linaclotide) (SEQ ID NO: 55) or SP-340 (SEQ ID NO: 56). For example, the GCC agonist peptide degrades 2%, 3%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75%, 90% or less compared to naturally occurring GCC agonists and/or SP-304, SP-339 (linaclotide) or SP-340. In certain embodiments, the GCC agonist peptides for use in the formulations and methods of the invention are more stable to proteolytic digestion than naturally occurring GCC agonists and/or SP-304 (SEQ ID NO:1), SP-339 (linaclotide) (SEQ ID NO: 55) or SP-340 (SEQ ID NO: 56). In one embodiment, a GCC agonist peptide is pegylated in order to render the peptides more resistant towards protealysis by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. In a preferred embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is pegylated with the aminoethyloxy-ethyloxy-acetic acid (Aeea) group at its C-terminal end, at its N-terminal end, or at both termini. Specific examples of GCC agonist peptides that can be used in the methods and formulations of the invention include a peptide selected from the group designated by SEQ ID NOs: 1-249. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is a peptide having the amino acid sequence of any one of Formulas X-XVII (e.g. SEQ ID NO:87-98). In some embodiments, GCC agonist peptides include peptides having the amino acid sequence of Formula I, wherein at least one amino acid of Formula I is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid and/or the amino acid at position 16 is a serine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 16 of Formula I is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. For example, the amino acid at position 16 of Formula I is a d-leucine or a d-serine. Optionally, one or more of the amino acids at positions 1-3 of Formula I are D-amino acids or methylated amino acids or a combination of D-amino acids or methylated amino acids. For example, Asn 1 , Asp 2 or Glu 3 (or a combination thereof) of Formula I is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position Xaa 6 of Formula I is a leucine, serine or tyrosine. In alternative embodiments, GCC agonist peptides include peptides having the amino acid sequence of Formula II, wherein at least one amino acid of Formula II is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. Preferably, the amino acid denoted by Xaa n2 of Formula II is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. In some embodiments, the amino acid denoted by Xaa n2 of Formula II is a leucine, a d-leucine, a serine, or a d-serine. Preferably, the one or more amino acids denoted by Xaa n1 of Formula II is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position Xaa 6 of Formula II is a leucine, a serine, or a tyrosine. In some embodiments, GCC agonist peptides include peptides having the amino acid sequence of Formula III, wherein at least one amino acid of Formula III is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid and/or Maa is not a cysteine. Preferably, the amino acid denoted by Xaa n2 of Formula III is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. In some embodiments the amino acid denoted by Xaa n2 of Formula III is a leucine, a d-leucine, a serine, or a d-serine. Preferably, the one or more amino acids denoted by Xaa n1 of Formula III is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position Xaa 6 of Formula III is a leucine, a serine, or a tyrosine. In other embodiments, GCC agonist peptides include peptides having the amino acid sequence of Formula IV, wherein at least one amino acid of Formula IV is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid, and/or Maa is not a cysteine. Preferably, the Xaa n2 of Formula IV is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. In some embodiments, the amino acid denoted by Xaa n2 of Formula IV is a leucine, a d-leucine, a serine, or a d-serine. Preferably, the one or more of the amino acids denoted by Xaa n1 of Formula IV is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. Preferably, the amino acid denoted Xaa 6 of Formula IV is a leucine, a serine, or a tyrosine. In further embodiments, GCC agonist peptides include peptides having the amino acid sequence of Formula V, wherein at least one amino acid of Formula V is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position 16 of Formula V is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. For example, the amino acid at position 16 (i.e., Xaa 16 ) of Formula V is a d-leucine or a d-serine. Optionally, one or more of the amino acids at position 1-3 of Formula V are D-amino acids or methylated amino acids or a combination of D-amino acids or methylated amino acids. For example, Asn 1 , Asp 2 or Glu 3 (or a combination thereof) of Formula V is a D-amino acids or a methylated amino acid. Preferably, the amino acid denoted at Xaa 6 of Formula V is a leucine, a serine, or a tyrosine. In additional embodiments, GCC agonist peptides include peptides having the amino acid sequence of Formula VI, VII, VIII, or IX. Preferably, the amino acid at position 6 of Formula VI, VII, VIII, or IX is a leucine, a serine, or a tyrosine. In some aspects the amino acid at position 16 of Formula VI, VII, VIII, or IX is a leucine or a serine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 16 of Formula V is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. In additional embodiments, GCC agonist peptides include peptides having the amino acid sequence of Formula X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI or XVII. Optionally, one or more amino acids of Formulas X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI or XVII is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. Preferably, the amino acid at the carboxy terminus of the peptides according to Formulas X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI or XVII is a D-amino acid or a methylated amino acid. For example the amino acid at the carboxy terminus of the peptides according to Formulas X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI or XVII is a D-tyrosine. Preferably, the amino acid denoted by Xaa 6 of Formula XIV is a tyrosine, phenyalanine or a serine. Most preferably the amino acid denoted by Xaa 6 of Formula XIV is a phenyalanine or a serine. Preferably, the amino acid denoted by Xaa 4 of Formula XV, XVI or XVII is a tyrosine, a phenyalanine, or a serine. Most preferably, the amino acid position Xaa 4 of Formula V, XVI or XVII is a phenyalanine or a serine. In some embodiments, GCRA peptides include peptides containing the amino acid sequence of Formula XVIII. Preferably, the amino acid at position 1 of Formula XVIII is a glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glutamine or lysine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 2 and 3 of Formula XVIII is a glutamic acid, or an aspartic acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position 5 a glutamic acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position 6 of Formula XVIII is an isoleucine, valine, serine, threonine or tyrosine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 8 of Formula XVIII is a valine or isoleucine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 9 of Formula XVIII is a an asparagine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 10 of Formula XVIII is a valine or an methionine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 11 of Formula XVIII is an alanine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 13 of Formula XVIII is a threonine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 14 of Formula XVIII is a glycine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 16 of Formula XVIII is a leucine, serine or threonine In alternative embodiments, GCRA peptides include peptides containing the amino acid sequence of Formula XIX. Preferably, the amino acid at position 1 of Formula XIX is a serine or asparagine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 2 of Formula XIX is a histidine or an aspartic acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position 3 of Formula XIX is a threonine or a glutamic acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position 5 of Formula XIX is a glutamic acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position 6 of Formula XIX is an isoleucine, leucine, valine or tyrosine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 8, 10, 11, or 13 of Formula XIX is a alanine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 9 of Formula XIX is an asparagine or a phenylalanine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 14 of Formula XIX is a glycine. In further embodiments, GCRA peptides include peptides containing the amino acid sequence of Formula XX. Preferably, the amino acid at position 1 of Formula XX is a glutamine Preferably, the amino acid at position 2 or 3 of Formula XX is a glutamic acid or a aspartic acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position 5 of Formula XX is a glutamic acid. Preferably, the amino acid at position 6 of Formula XX is threonine, glutamine, tyrosine, isoleucine, or leucine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 8 of Formula XX is isoleucine or valine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 9 of Formula XX is asparagine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 10 of Formula XX is methionine or valine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 11 of Formula XX is alanine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 13 of Formula XX is a threonione. Preferably, the amino acid at position 1 of Formula XX is a glycine. Preferably, the amino acid at position 15 of Formula XX is a tyrosine. Optionally, the amino acid at position 15 of Formula XX is two amino acid in length and is Cysteine (Cys), Penicillamine (Pen) homocysteine, or 3-mercaptoproline and serine, leucine or threonine. In certain embodiments, one or more amino acids of the GCC agonist peptides are replaced by a non-naturally occurring amino acid or a naturally or non-naturally occurring amino acid analog. Such amino acids and amino acid analogs are known in the art. See, for example, Hunt, “The Non-Protein Amino Acids,” in Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Amino Acids , Barrett, Chapman and Hall, 1985. In some embodiments, an amino acid is replaced by a naturally-occurring, non-essential amino acid, e.g., taurine. Non-limiting examples of naturally occurring amino acids that can be replaced by non-protein amino acids include the following: (1) an aromatic amino acid can be replaced by 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, triiodothyronine, L-thyroxine, phenylglycine (Phg) or nor-tyrosine (norTyr); (2) Phg and norTyr and other amino acids including Phe and Tyr can be substituted by, e.g., a halogen, —CH3, —OH, —CH2NH3, —C(O)H, —CH2CH3,—CN, —CH2CH2CH3, —SH, or another group; (3) glutamine residues can be substituted with gamma-Hydroxy-Glu or gamma-Carboxy-Glu; (4) tyrosine residues can be substituted with an alpha substituted amino acid such as L-alpha-methylphenylalanine or by analogues such as: 3-Amino-Tyr; Tyr(CH3); Tyr(PO3(CH3)2); Tyr(SO3H); beta-Cyclohexyl-Ala; beta-(1-Cyclopentenyl)-Ala; beta-Cyclopentyl-Ala; beta-Cyclopropyl-Ala; beta-Quinolyl-Ala; beta-(2-Thiazolyl)-Ala; beta-(Triazole-1-yl)-Ala; beta-(2-Pyridyl)-Ala; beta-(3-Pyridyl)-Ala; Amino-Phe; Fluoro-Phe; Cyclohexyl-Gly; tBu-Gly; beta-(3-benzothienyl)-Ala; beta-(2-thienyl)-Ala; 5-Methyl-Trp; and A-Methyl-Trp; (5) proline residues can be substituted with homopro (L-pipecolic acid); hydroxy-Pro; 3,4-Dehydro-Pro; 4-fluoro-Pro; or alpha-methyl-Pro or an N(alpha)-C(alpha) cyclized amino acid analogues with the structure: n=0, 1, 2, 3; and (6) alanine residues can be substituted with alpha-substituted or N-methylated amino acid such as alpha-amino isobutyric acid (aib), L/D-alpha-ethylalanine (L/D-isovaline), L/D-methylvaline, or L/D-alpha-methylleucine or a non-natural amino acid such as beta-fluoro-Ala. Alanine can also be substituted with: n=0, 1, 2, 3 Glycine residues can be substituted with alpha-amino isobutyric acid (aib) or L/D-alpha-ethylalanine (L/D-isovaline). Further examples of non-natural amino acids include: an unnatural analog of tyrosine; an unnatural analogue of glutamine; an unnatural analogue of phenylalanine; an unnatural analogue of serine; an unnatural analogue of threonine; an alkyl, aryl, acyl, azido, cyano, halo, hydrazine, hydrazide, hydroxyl, alkenyl, alkynl, ether, thiol, sulfonyl, seleno, ester, thioacid, borate, boronate, phospho, phosphono, phosphine, heterocyclic, enone, imine, aldehyde, hydroxylamine, keto, or amino substituted amino acid, or any combination thereof; an amino acid with a photoactivatable cross-linker; a spin-labeled amino acid; a fluorescent amino acid; an amino acid with a novel functional group; an amino acid that covalently or noncovalently interacts with another molecule; a metal binding amino acid; an amino acid that is amidated at a site that is not naturally amidated, a metal-containing amino acid; a radioactive amino acid; a photocaged and/or photoisomerizable amino acid; a biotin or biotin-analogue containing amino acid; a glycosylated or carbohydrate modified amino acid; a keto containing amino acid; amino acids comprising polyethylene glycol or polyether; a heavy atom substituted amino acid (e.g., an amino acid containing deuterium, tritium, 13 C, 15 N, or 18 O); a chemically cleavable or photocleavable amino acid; an amino acid with an elongated side chain; an amino acid containing a toxic group; a sugar substituted amino acid, e.g., a sugar substituted serine or the like; a carbon-linked sugar-containing amino acid; a redox-active amino acid; an α-hydroxy containing acid; an amino thio acid containing amino acid; an α,α disubstituted amino acid; a β-amino acid; a cyclic amino acid other than proline; an O-methyl-L-tyrosine; an L-3-(2-naphthyl)alanine; a 3-methyl-phenylalanine; a p-acetyl-L-phenylalanine; an O-4-allyl-L-tyrosine; a 4-propyl-L-tyrosine; a tri-O-acetyl-GlcNAc β-serine; an L-Dopa; a fluorinated phenylalanine; an isopropyl-L-phenylalanine; a p-azido-L-phenylalanine; a p-acyl-L-phenylalanine; a p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine; an L-phosphoserine; a phosphonoserine; a phosphonotyrosine; a p-iodo-phenylalanine; a 4-fluorophenylglycine; a p-bromophenylalanine; a p-amino-L-phenylalanine; an isopropyl-L-phenylalanine; L-3-(2-naphthyl)alanine; D-3-(2-naphthyl)alanine (dNal); an amino-, isopropyl-, or O-allyl-containing phenylalanine analogue; a dopa, O-methyl-L-tyrosine; a glycosylated amino acid; a p-(propargyloxy)phenylalanine; dimethyl-Lysine; hydroxy-proline; mercaptopropionic acid; methyl-lysine; 3-nitro-tyrosine; norleucine; pyro-glutamic acid; Z (Carbobenzoxyl); ε-Acetyl-Lysine; β-alanine; aminobenzoyl derivative; aminobutyric acid (Abu); citrulline; aminohexanoic acid; aminoisobutyric acid (AIB); cyclohexylalanine; d-cyclohexylalanine; hydroxyproline; nitro-arginine; nitro-phenylalanine; nitro-tyrosine; norvaline; octahydroindole carboxylate; ornithine (Orn); penicillamine (PEN); tetrahydroisoquinoline; acetamidomethyl protected amino acids and pegylated amino acids. Further examples of unnatural amino acids and amino acid analogs can be found in U.S. 20030108885, U.S. 20030082575, US20060019347 (paragraphs 410-418) and the references cited therein. The polypeptides of the invention can include further modifications including those described in US20060019347, paragraph 589. Exemplary GCC agonist peptides which include a non-naturally occurring amino acid include for example SP-368 and SP-369. In some embodiments, the GCC agonist peptides are cyclic peptides. GCC agonist cyclic peptides can be prepared by methods known in the art. For example, macrocyclization is often accomplished by forming an amide bond between the peptide N- and C-termini, between a side chain and the N- or C-terminus [e.g., with K 3 Fe(CN) 6 at pH 8.5] (Samson et al., Endocrinology, 137: 5182-5185 (1996)), or between two amino acid side chains, such as cysteine. See, e.g., DeGrado, Adv Protein Chem, 39: 51-124 (1988). In various embodiments, the GCC agonist peptides are [4,12; 7,15] bicycles. In certain embodiments, one or both Cys residues which normally form a disulfide bond in a GCC agonist peptide are replaced with homocysteine, penicillamine, 3-mercaptoproline (Kolodziej et al. 1996 Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 48:274), β,β dimethylcysteine (Hunt et al. 1993 Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 42:249), or diaminopropionic acid (Smith et al. 1978 J. Med. Chem. 2 1:117) to form alternative internal cross-links at the positions of the normal disulfide bonds. In certain embodiments, one or more disulfide bonds in a GCC agonist peptide are replaced by alternative covalent cross-links, e.g., an amide linkage (—CH 2 CH(O)NHCH 2 — or —CH 2 NHCH(O)CH 2 —), an ester linkage, a thioester linkage, a lactam bridge, a carbamoyl linkage, a urea linkage, a thiourea linkage, a phosphonate ester linkage, an alkyl linkage (—CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 —), an alkenyl linkage (—CH 2 CH═CHCH 2 —), an ether linkage (—CH 2 CH 2 OCH 2 — or —CH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 —), a thioether linkage (—CH 2 CH 2 SCH 2 — or —CH 2 SCH 2 CH 2 —), an amine linkage (—CH 2 CH 2 NHCH 2 — or —CH 2 NHCH 2 CH 2 —) or a thioamide linkage (—CH 2 CH(S)HNHCH 2 — or —CH 2 NHCH(S)CH 2 —). For example, Ledu et al. ( Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100:11263-78, 2003) describe methods for preparing lactam and amide cross-links. Exemplary GCC agonist peptides which include a lactam bridge include, for example, SP-370. In certain embodiments, the GCC agonist peptides have one or more conventional polypeptide bonds replaced by an alternative bond. Such replacements can increase the stability of the polypeptide. For example, replacement of the polypeptide bond between a residue amino terminal to an aromatic residue (e.g. Tyr, Phe, Trp) with an alternative bond can reduce cleavage by carboxy peptidases and may increase half-life in the digestive tract. Bonds that can replace polypeptide bonds include: a retro-inverso bond (C(O)—NH instead of NH—C(O); a reduced amide bond (NH—CH 2 ); a thiomethylene bond (S—CH 2 or CH 2 —S); an oxomethylene bond (O—CH 2 or CH 2 —O); an ethylene bond (CH 2 —CH 2 ); a thioamide bond (C(S)—NH); a trans-olefine bond (CH═CH); a fluoro substituted trans-olefme bond (CF═CH); a ketomethylene bond (C(O)—CHR or CHR—C(O) wherein R is H or CH 3 ; and a fluoro-ketomethylene bond (C(O)—CFR or CFR—C(O) wherein R is H or F or CH 3 . In certain embodiments, the GCC agonist peptides are modified using standard modifications. Modifications may occur at the amino (N-), carboxy (C-) terminus, internally or a combination of any of the preceeding. In one aspect described herein, there may be more than one type of modification on the polypeptide. Modifications include but are not limited to: acetylation, amidation, biotinylation, cinnamoylation, farnesylation, formylation, myristoylation, palmitoylation, phosphorylation (Ser, Tyr or Thr), stearoylation, succinylation, sulfurylation and cyclisation (via disulfide bridges or amide cyclisation), and modification by Cys3 or Cys5. The GCC agonist peptides described herein may also be modified by 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP), DNP-lysine, modification by 7-Amino-4-methyl-coumarin (AMC), flourescein, NBD (7-Nitrobenz-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazole), p-nitro-anilide, rhodamine B, EDANS (5-((2-aminoethyl)amino)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid), dabcyl, dabsyl, dansyl, texas red, FMOC, and Tamra (Tetramethylrhodamine). The GCC agonist peptides described herein may also be conjugated to, for example, polyethylene glycol (PEG); alkyl groups (e.g., C1-C20 straight or branched alkyl groups); fatty acid radicals; combinations of PEG, alkyl groups and fatty acid radicals (See, U.S. Pat. No. 6,309,633; Soltero et al., 2001 Innovations in Pharmaceutical Technology 106-110); BSA and KLH (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin). The addition of PEG and other polymers which can be used to modify polypeptides of the invention is described in US20060 19347 section IX. A GCC agonist peptide can also be a derivatives of a GCC agonist peptide described herein. For example, a derivative includes hybrid and modified forms of GCC agonist peptides in which certain amino acids have been deleted or replaced. A modification may also include glycosylation. Preferrably, where the modification is an amino acid substitution, it is a conservative substitution at one or more positions that are predicted to be non-essential amino acid residues for the biological activity of the peptide. A “conservative substitution” is one in which the amino acid residue is replaced with an amino acid residue having a similar side chain. Families of amino acid residues having similar side chains have been defined in the art. These families include amino acids with basic side chains (e.g., lysine, arginine, histidine), acidic side chains (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid), uncharged polar side chains (e.g., glycine, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, cysteine), nonpolar side chains (e.g., alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan), beta-branched side chains (e.g., threonine, valine, isoleucine) and aromatic side chains (e.g., tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine). In one embodiment, a GCC agonist peptide described herein is subjected to random mutagenesis in order to identify mutants having biological activity. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist peptide is substantially homologous is a GCC agonist peptide described herein. Such substantially homologous peptides can be isolated by virtue of cross-reactivity with antibodies to a GCC agonist peptide described herein. Further examples of GCC agonist peptides that can be used in the methods and formulations of the invention are found in Tables I-VII below. 1.2.2 Preparation of GCC Agonist Peptides GCC agonist peptides can be prepared using art recognized techniques such as molecular cloning, peptide synthesis, or site-directed mutagenesis. Peptide synthesis can be performed using standard solution phase or solid phase peptide synthesis techniques or a combination of both process where segments are synthesized by solid phase and condensed in solution phase, in which a peptide linkage occurs through the direct condensation of the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxy group of the other amino acid with the elimination of a water molecule. Peptide bond synthesis by direct condensation, as formulated above, requires suppression of the reactive character of the amino group of the first and of the carboxyl group of the second amino acid. The masking substituents must permit their ready removal, without inducing breakdown of the labile peptide molecule. In solution phase synthesis, a wide variety of coupling methods and protecting groups may be used (See, Gross and Meienhofer, eds., “The Peptides: Analysis, Synthesis, Biology,” Vol. 1-4 (Academic Press, 1979); Bodansky and Bodansky, “The Practice of Peptide Synthesis,” 2d ed. (Springer Verlag, 1994)). In addition, intermediate purification and linear scale up are possible. Those of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that solution synthesis requires consideration of main chain and side chain protecting groups and activation method. In addition, careful segment selection is necessary to minimize racemization during segment condensation. Solubility considerations are also a factor. Solid phase peptide synthesis uses an insoluble polymer for support during organic synthesis. The polymer-supported peptide chain permits the use of simple washing and filtration steps instead of laborious purifications at intermediate steps. Solid-phase peptide synthesis may generally be performed according to the method of Merrifield et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1963, 85:2149, which involves assembling a linear peptide chain on a resin support using protected amino acids. Solid phase peptide synthesis typically utilizes either the Boc or Fmoc strategy, which are well known in the art. Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that, in solid phase synthesis, deprotection and coupling reactions must go to completion and the side-chain blocking groups must be stable throughout the synthesis. In addition, solid phase synthesis is generally most suitable when peptides are to be made on a small scale. Acetylation of the N-terminal can be accomplished by reacting the final peptide with acetic anhydride before cleavage from the resin. C-amidation is accomplished using an appropriate resin such as methylbenzhydrylamine resin using the Boc technology. Alternatively the GCC agonist peptides are produced by modern cloning techniques For example, the GCC agonist peptides are produced either in bacteria including, without limitation, E. coli , or in other existing systems for polypeptide or protein production (e.g., Bacillus subtilis , baculovirus expression systems using Drosophila Sf9 cells, yeast or filamentous fungal expression systems, mammalian cell expression systems), or they can be chemically synthesized. If the GCC agonist peptide or variant peptide is to be produced in bacteria, e.g., E. coli , the nucleic acid molecule encoding the polypeptide may also encode a leader sequence that permits the secretion of the mature polypeptide from the cell. Thus, the sequence encoding the polypeptide can include the pre sequence and the pro sequence of, for example, a naturally-occurring bacterial ST polypeptide. The secreted, mature polypeptide can be purified from the culture medium. The sequence encoding a GCC agonist peptide described herein can be inserted into a vector capable of delivering and maintaining the nucleic acid molecule in a bacterial cell. The DNA molecule may be inserted into an autonomously replicating vector (suitable vectors include, for example, pGEM3Z and pcDNA3, and derivatives thereof). The vector nucleic acid may be a bacterial or bacteriophage DNA such as bacteriophage lambda or M13 and derivatives thereof. Construction of a vector containing a nucleic acid described herein can be followed by transformation of a host cell such as a bacterium. Suitable bacterial hosts include but are not limited to, E. coli, B subtilis, Pseudomonas, Salmonella . The genetic construct also includes, in addition to the encoding nucleic acid molecule, elements that allow expression, such as a promoter and regulatory sequences. The expression vectors may contain transcriptional control sequences that control transcriptional initiation, such as promoter, enhancer, operator, and repressor sequences. A variety of transcriptional control sequences are well known to those in the art. The expression vector can also include a translation regulatory sequence (e.g., an untranslated 5′ sequence, an untranslated 3′ sequence, or an internal ribosome entry site). The vector can be capable of autonomous replication or it can integrate into host DNA to ensure stability during polypeptide production. The protein coding sequence that includes a GCC agonist peptide described herein can also be fused to a nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide affinity tag, e.g., glutathione S-transferase (GST), maltose E binding protein, protein A, FLAG tag, hexa-histidine, myc tag or the influenza HA tag, in order to facilitate purification. The affinity tag or reporter fusion joins the reading frame of the polypeptide of interest to the reading frame of the gene encoding the affinity tag such that a translational fusion is generated. Expression of the fusion gene results in translation of a single polypeptide that includes both the polypeptide of interest and the affinity tag. In some instances where affinity tags are utilized, DNA sequence encoding a protease recognition site will be fused between the reading frames for the affinity tag and the polypeptide of interest. Genetic constructs and methods suitable for production of immature and mature forms of the GCC agonist peptides and variants described herein in protein expression systems other than bacteria, and well known to those skilled in the art, can also be used to produce polypeptides in a biological system. The peptides disclosed herein may be modified by attachment of a second molecule that confers a desired property upon the peptide, such as increased half-life in the body, for example, pegylation. Such modifications also fall within the scope of the term “variant” as used herein. TABLE I GCRA Peptides (SP-304 and Derivatives) Position of SEQ  Name  Disulfide bonds Structure  ID NO SP-304 C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 1 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 SP-326 C3:C11, C6:C14 Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Cys 3 -Glu 4 -Leu 5 -Cys 6 -Val 7 -Asn 8 - 2 Val 9 -Ala 10 -Cys 11 -Thr 12 -Gly 13 -Cys 14 -Leu 15 SP-327 C2:C10, C5:C13 Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Cys 3 -Glu 4 -Leu 5 -Cys 6 -Val 7 -Asn 8 - 3 Val 9 -Ala 10 -Cys 11 -Thr 12 -Gly 13 -Cys 14 SP-328 C2:C10, C5:C13 Glu 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Leu 4 -Cys 5 -Val 6 -Asn 7 -Val 8 - 4 Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -Leu 14 SP-329 C2:C10, C5:C13 Glu 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Leu 4 -Cys 5 -Val 6 -Asn 7 -Val 8 - 5 Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 SP-330 C1:C9, C4:C12 Cys 1 -Glu 2 -Leu 3 -Cys 4 -Val 5 -Asn 6 -Val 7 -Ala 8 - 6 Cys 9 -Thr 10 -Gly 11 -Cys 12 -Leu 13 SP-331 C1:C9, C4:C12 Cys 1 -Glu 2 -Leu 3 -Cys 4 -Val 5 -Asn 6 -Val 7 -Ala 8 - 7 Cys 9 -Thr 10 -Gly 11 -Cys 12 SP332 C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 8 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-333 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 9 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-334 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 10 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-335 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -dGlu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 11 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-336 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 12 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 SP-337 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -dLeu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 13 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-338 C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 14 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 SP-342 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 SP-343 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 16 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 SP-344 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 17 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 PEG3 SP-347 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 18 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 SP-348 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 19 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-350 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 20 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-352 C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 21 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 SP-358 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -dGlu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 22 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 SP-359 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -dGlu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 23 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-360 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -dGlu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 24 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16- PEG3 SP-361 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 25 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 SP-362 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 26 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-368 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 27 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dNal 16 SP-369 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -AIB 8 -Asn 9 - 28 AIB 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-370 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Asp[Lactam] 7 - 29 Val 8 -Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Orn 15 -dLeu 1 SP-371 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 30 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 SP-372 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 31 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 N1 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 32 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 N2 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 33 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 N3 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 34 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16  PEG3 N4 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 35 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 N5 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 36 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 N6 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 37 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu 16 -PEG3 N7 C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 38 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N8 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 39 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 -PEG3 N9 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 40 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N10 C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 41 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 -PEG3 N11 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 42 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dSer 16 -PEG3 N12 C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 43 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dSer 16 N13 C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 44 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dSer 16 -PEG3 Formula I C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Cys 7 -Xaa 8 -Xaa 9 - 45 Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Cys 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Cys 15 -Xaa 16 Formula II C4:C12, C7:C15 Xaa n1 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Cys 7 -Xaa 8 -Xaa 9 -Xaa 10 - 46 Xaa 11 -Cys 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Cys 15 -Xaa n2 16 Formula III 4:12, 7:15 Xaa n1 -Maa 4 -Glu 5 -Xaa 6 -Maa 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 - 47 Maa 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Maa 15 -Xaa n2 Formula IV 4:12, 7:15 Xaa n1 -Maa 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Maa 7 -Xaa 8 -Xaa 9 -Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 - 48 Maa 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Maa 15 -Xaa n2 Formula V C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Cys 7 -Xaa 8 -Asn 9 - 49 Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Cys 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Cys 15 -Xaa 16 Formula VI C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Cys 7 -X3 8 -Asn 9 - 50 Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Cys 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Cys 15 -d-Xaa 16 Formula VII C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -dGlu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Cys 7 -Xaa 8 -Asn 9 - 51 Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Cys 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Cys 15 -d-Xaa 16 Formula VII C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Cys 7 -Xaa 8 -Asn 9 - 52 Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Cys 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Cys 15 -d-Xaa 16 Formula VIII C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -dAsp 2 -dGlu 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Cys 7 -Xaa 8 -Tyr 9 - 53 Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Cys 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Cys 15 -d-Xaa 16 Formula IX C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -dGlu 2 -dGlu 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Cys 7 -Xaa 8 -Tyr 9 - 54 Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Cys 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Cys 15 -d-Xaa 16 TABLE II Linaclotide and Derivatives Position of  SEQ  Name Disulfide bonds Structure ID NO: SP-339 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 - 55 (linaclotide) Pro 8 -Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -Tyr 14 SP-340 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 - 56 Pro 8 -Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 SP-349 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 PEG3-Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 - 57 Pro 8 -Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -Tyr 14 -PEG3 SP-353 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 58 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 SP-354 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2- Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 59 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 SP-355 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 - 60 Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -dTyr 14 SP-357 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 PEG3-Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 - 61 Pro 8 -Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -Tyr 14 SP-374 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 62 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 SP-375 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 63 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 SP-376 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 dAsn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 64 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 SP-377 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 dAsn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 65 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 SP-378 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 66 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 SP-379 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 dAsn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 67 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 SP-380 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 dAsn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 68 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 SP-381 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 69 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 SP-382 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 dAsn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 70 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 SP-383 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 dAsn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 71 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 SP384 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 - 72 Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -Tyr 14 -PEG3 N14 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 PEG3-Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 - 73 Pro 8 -Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -PEG3 N15 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 PEG3-Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 - 74 Pro 8 -Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 N16 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu 3 -Tyr 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 - 75 Pro 8 -Ala 9 -Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -PEG3 N17 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 - 76 Cys 8 -Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 - Cys 15 -Tyr 16 -PEG3 N18 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 77 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 N19 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ser 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 78 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 -PEG3 N20 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7 - 79 Cys 8 -Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 - Tyr 16 -PEG3 N21 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 80 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 N22 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 81 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 -PEG3 N23 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 - 82 Cys 8 -Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 - Tyr 16 -PEG3 N24 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 - 83 Asn 9 -Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 N25 C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 84 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 -PEG3 N26 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu3-Ser 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 -Ala 9 - 85 Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -Tyr 14 N27 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu3-Phe 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 -Ala 9 - 86 Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 -Tyr 14 N28 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu3-Ser 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 -Ala 9 - 87 Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 - N29 C1:C6, C2:C10, C5:13 Cys 1 -Cys 2 -Glu3-Phe 4 -Cys 5 -Cys 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 -Ala 9 - 88 Cys 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Cys 13 N30 1:6, 2:10, 5:13 Pen 1 -Pen 2 -Glu3-Tyr 4 -Pen 5 -Pen 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 -Ala 9 - 89 Pen 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Pen 13 -Tyr 14 N31 1:6, 2:10, 5:13 Pen 1 -Pen 2 -Glu3-Tyr 4 -Pen 5 -Pen 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 -Ala 9 - 90 Pen 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Pen 13 Formula X C9:C14, C10:C18, Xaa 1 -Xaa 2- Xaa 3 -Xaa 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Asn 7 -Tyr 8 -Cys 9 - 91 C13:21 Cys 10 -Xaa 11 -Tyr 12 -Cys 13 -Cys 14 -Xaa 15 -Xaa 16 -Xaa 17 - Cys 18 -Xaa 19 -Xaa 20 -Cys 21 -Xaa 22 Formula XI C9:C14, C10:C18, Xaa 1 -Xaa 2- Xaa 3 -Xaa 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Asn 7 -Phe 8 -Cys 9 - 92 C13:21 Cys 10 -Xaa 11 -Phe 12 -Cys 13 -Cys 14 -Xaa 15 -Xaa 16 -Xaa 17 - Cys 18 -Xaa 19 -Xaa 20 -Cys 21 -Xaa 22 Formula XII C3:C8, C4:C12, C7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Xaa 9 - 93 Xaa 10 -Xaa 11- Cys 12 -Xaa 3 -Xaa 14- Cys 15 -Xaa 16 Formula 3:8, 4:12, C:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Pen 3 -Cys 4 -Xaa 5 -Phe 6 -Cys 7- Pen 8 -Xaa 9 - 94 XIII Xaa 10 -Xaa 11- Cys12-Xaa 13 -Xaa 14- Cys 15 -Xaa 16 Formula 3:8, 4:12, 7:15 Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Maa 3 -Maa 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Maa 7- Maa 8 -Xaa 9 - 95 XIV Xaa 10 -Xaa 11- Maa 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14- Maa 15 -Xaa 16 Formula XV 1:6, 2:10, 5:13 Maa 1 -Maa 2 -Glu3-Xaa 4 -Maa 5 -Maa 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 -Ala 9 - 96 Maa 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Maa 13 -Tyr 14 Formula 1:6, 2:10, 5:13 Maa 1 -Maa 2 -Glu3-Xaa 4 -Maa 5 -Maa 6 -Asn 7 -Pro 8 -Ala 9 - 97 XVI Maa 10 -Thr 11 -Gly 12 -Maa 13 - Formula 1:6, 2:10, 5:13 Xaa n3 -Maa 1 -Maa 2 -Xaa 3 -Xaa 4 -Maa 5 -Maa 6 -Xaa 7 -Xaa 8 - 98 XVII Xaa 9 -Maa 10 -Xaa 11 -Xaa 12 -Maa 13 -Xaa n2 TABLE III GCRA Peptides Position of SEQ  Name Disulfide bonds Structure ID NO: SP-363 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 99 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu-AMIDE 16 SP-364 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 100 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dSer 16 SP-365 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 101 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dSer-AMIDE 16 SP-366 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 102 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 SP-367 C4:C12, C7:C15 dAsn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 103 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr-AMIDE 16 SP-373 C4:C12, C7:C15 Pyglu 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 104 Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dLeu-AMIDE 16 SP-304 di C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 105 PEG Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16-PEG3 SP-304 N- C4:C12, C7:C15 PEG3-Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 106 PEG Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 SP-304 C- C4:C12, C7:C15 Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 -Asn 9 - 107 PEG Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16- PEG3 TABLE IV SP-304 Analogs, Uroguanylin, and Uroguanylin Analogs Position of  SEQ  Name Disulfide bonds Structure ID NO Formula  C4:C12, Xaa 1 -Xaa 2 -Xaa 3 -Maa 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Maa 7 -Xaa 8 - 108 XVIII C7:C15 Xaa 9 -Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Maa 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Maa 15 -Xaa 16 Uroguanylin C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 109 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N32 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 110 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N33 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 111 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N34 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 112 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N35 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 113 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N36 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 114 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N37 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 115 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N38 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 116 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N39 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 117 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N40 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 118 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N41 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 119 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N42 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 120 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N43 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 121 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N44 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 122 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N45 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 123 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N46 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 124 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N47 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 125 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N48 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 126 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N49 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 127 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N50 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 128 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N51 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 129 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N52 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 130 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N53 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 131 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N54 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 132 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N55 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 133 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N56 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 134 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N57 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 135 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N58 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 136 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N59 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 137 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N60 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 138 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N61 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 139 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N62 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 140 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N63 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Val 8 - 141 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Val 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N65 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 142 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N66 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 143 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N67 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 144 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N68 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 145 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N69 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 146 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N70 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 147 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N71 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 148 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N72 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 149 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N73 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 150 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N74 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 151 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N75 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 152 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N76 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 153 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N77 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 154 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N78 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 155 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N79 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 156 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N80 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 157 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Leu 16 N81 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 158 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N82 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 159 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N83 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 160 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N84 C4:C12, Glu 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 161 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N85 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 162 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N86 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 163 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N87 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 164 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N88 C4:C12, Asp 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 165 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N89 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 166 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N90 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 167 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N91 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 168 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N92 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 169 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N93 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 170 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N94 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 171 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N95 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 172 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N96 C4:C12, Lys 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 - 173 C7:C15 Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 TABLE V Guanylin and Analogs Position of SEQ Disulfide ID Name bonds Structure NO Formula 4:12, 7:15 Xaa 1 -Xaa 2 -Xaa 3 -Maa 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Maa 7 -Xaa 8 -Xaa 9 -Xaa 10 -Xaa 11 -Maa 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Maa 15 174 XIX Guanylin C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Phe 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 175 C7:C15 N97 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 176 C7:C15 N98 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 177 C7:C15 N99 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Val 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 178 C7:C15 N100 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 179 C7:C15 N101 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 180 C7:C15 N102 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 181 C7:C15 N103 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Val 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 182 C7:C15 N104 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 183 C7:C15 N105 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 184 C7:C15 N106 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 185 C7:C15 N107 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Val 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 186 C7:C15 N108 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 187 C7:C15 N109 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 188 C7:C15 N110 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 189 C7:C15 N111 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Val 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 190 C7:C15 N112 C4:C12, Ser 1 -His 2 -Thr 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 191 C7:C15 N113 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 192 C7:C15 N114 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 193 C7:C15 N115 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Val 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 194 C7:C15 N116 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 195 C7:C15 N117 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 196 C7:C15 N118 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 197 C7:C15 N119 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Val 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 198 C7:C15 N120 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 199 C7:C15 N121 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 200 C7:C15 N122 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 201 C7:C15 N123 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Val 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 202 C7:C15 N124 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 203 C7:C15 N125 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 204 C7:C15 N126 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 205 C7:C15 N127 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Val 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 206 C7:C15 N128 C4:C12, Asn 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ala 8 -Asn 9 -Ala 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Ala 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 207 C7:C15 TABLE VI Lymphoguanylin and Analogs Position of Disulfide SEQ Name bonds Structure ID NO Formula XX 4:12, 7:15 Xaa 1 -Xaa 2 -Xaa 3 -Maa 4 -Xaa 5 -Xaa 6 -Maa 7 -Xaa 8 -Xaa 9 -Xaa 10 - 208 Xaa 11 -Maa 12 -Xaa 13 -Xaa 14 -Xaa n1 15 Lymphoguanylin C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu- 3 Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Leu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 209 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N129 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 210 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N130 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 211 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N131 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 212 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N132 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 213 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N133 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Glu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 214 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N134 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Glu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 215 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N135 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Glu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 216 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N136 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Glu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 217 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N137 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 218 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N138 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 219 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N139 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 220 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N140 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 221 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N141 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 222 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N142 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 223 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N143 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 224 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N144 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 225 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Tyr 15 N145 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 226 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N146 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 227 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N147 C4:C12 Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 228 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N148 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 229 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N149 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Glu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 230 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N150 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Glu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 231 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser N151 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Glu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 232 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N152 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Glu 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 233 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N153 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 234 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N154 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 235 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N155 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 236 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N156 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 237 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N157 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 238 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N158 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Glu 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 239 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N159 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Asp 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 240 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 N160 C4:C12, Gln 1 -Glu 2 -Asp 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Ile 6 -Cys 7 -Ile 8 -Asn 9 -Met 10 -Ala 11 - 241 C7:C15 Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Ser 16 TABLE VII ST Peptide and Analogues Position of SEQ  Name Disulfide bonds Structure ID NO ST C3:C8, C4:C12, Asn 1 -Ser 2 -Ser 3 -Asn 4 -Ser 5 -Ser 6 -Asn 7 -Tyr 8 -Cys 9 - 242 Peptide C7:15 Cys 10 -Glu 11 -Lys 12 -Cys 13 -Cys 14 -Asn 15 -Pro 16 -Ala 17 - Cys 18 -Thr 19 -Gly 20 -Cys 21 -Tyr 22 N161 C3:C8, C4:C12, PEG3-Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 243 C7:15 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 -PEG3 N162 C3:C8, C4:C12, PEG3-Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 244 C7:15 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 N163 C3:C8, C4:C12, Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Thr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 245 C7:15 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 -PEG3 N164 C3:C8, C4:C12, Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 246 C7:15 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 N165 C3:C8, C4:C12, dAsn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 247 C7:15 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 N166 C3:C8, C4:C12, Asn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 248 C7:15 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -dTyr 16 N167 C3:C8, C4:C12, dAsn 1 -Phe 2 -Cys 3 -Cys 4 -Glu 5 -Tyr 6 -Cys 7 -Cys 8 -Asn 9 - 249 C7:15 Pro 10 -Ala 11 -Cys 12 -Thr 13 -Gly 14 -Cys 15 -Tyr 16 1.3 Methods of Use The invention provides methods for treating or preventing gastrointestinal disorders and increasing gastrointestinal motility in a subject in need thereof by administering an effective amount of a GCC agonist formulation to the subject. Non-limiting examples of gastrointestinal disorders that can be treated or prevented according to the methods of the invention include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), non-ulcer dyspepsia, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, functional dyspepsia, colonic pseudo-obstruction, duodenogastric reflux, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ileus (e.g., post-operative ileus), gastroparesis, heartburn (high acidity in the GI tract), constipation (e.g., constipation associated with use of medications such as opioids, osteoarthritis drugs, or osteoporosis drugs); post surgical constipation, constipation associated with neuropathic disorders, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. In one embodiment, the invention provides methods for treating or preventing gastrointestinal motility disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, a functional gastrointestinal disorder, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenogastric reflux, functional heartburn, dyspepsia, functional dyspepsia, nonulcer dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, colonic pseudo-obstruction, obesity, congestive heart failure, or benign prostatic hyperplasia. In one embodiment, the invention provides methods for treating or preventing constipation and/or increasing gastrointestinal motility in a subject in need thereof by administering an effective amount of a GCC agonist formulation to the subject. Clinically accepted criteria that define constipation range from the frequency of bowel movements, the consistency of feces and the ease of bowel movement. One common definition of constipation is less than three bowel movements per week. Other definitions include abnormally hard stools or defecation that requires excessive straining (Schiller 2001 Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15:749-763). Constipation may be idiopathic (functional constipation or slow transit constipation) or secondary to other causes including neurologic, metabolic or endocrine disorders. These disorders include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypocalcaemia, Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord lesions, Neurofibromatosis, autonomic neuropathy, Chagas disease, Hirschsprung disease and cystic fibrosis. Constipation may also be the result of surgery or due to the use of drugs such as analgesics (like opioids), antihypertensives, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antispasmodics and antipsychotics. In various embodiments, the constipation is associated with use of a therapeutic agent; the constipation is associated with a neuropathic disorder; the constipation is postsurgical constipation; the constipation is associated with a gastrointestinal disorder; the constipation is idiopathic (functional constipation or slow transit constipation); the constipation is associated with neuropathic, metabolic or endocrine disorder (e.g., diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypocalcaemia, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord lesions, neurofibromatosis, autonomic neuropathy, Chagas disease, Hirschsprung disease or cystic fibrosis). Constipation may also be the result of surgery or due to the use of drugs such as analgesics (e.g., opioids), antihypertensives, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antispasmodics and antipsychotics. In one embodiment, the invention provides methods for treating or preventing chronic idiopathic constipation and increasing gastrointestinal motility in a subject in need thereof by administering an effective amount of a GCC agonist formulation to the subject. The term “treating” as used herein refers to a reduction, a partial improvement, amelioration, or a mitigation of at least one clinical symptom associated with the gastrointestinal disorders being treated. The term “preventing” refers to an inhibition or delay in the onset or progression of at least one clinical symptom associated with the gastrointestinal disorders to be prevented. The term “effective amount” as used herein refers to an amount that provides some improvement or benefit to the subject. In certain embodiments, an effective amount is an amount that provides some alleviation, mitigation, and/or decrease in at least one clinical symptom of the gastrointestinal disorder to be treated. In other embodiments, the effective amount is the amount that provides some inhibition or delay in the onset or progression of at least one clinical symptom associated with the gastrointestinal disorder to be prevented. The therapeutic effects need not be complete or curative, as long as some benefit is provided to the subject. The term “subject” preferably refers to a human subject but may also refer to a non-human primate or other mammal preferably selected from among a mouse, a rat, a dog, a cat, a cow, a horse, or a pig. The invention also provides methods for treating gastrointestinal cancer in a subject in need thereof by administering an effective amount of a GCC agonist formulation to the subject. Non-limiting examples of gastrointestinal cancers that can be treated according to the methods of the invention include gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, intestinal cancer, anal cancer, liver cancer, gallbladder cancer, or colon cancer. The invention also provides methods for treating lipid metabolism disorders, biliary disorders, inflammatory disorders, lung disorders, cancer, cardiac disorders including cardiovascular disorders, eye disorders, oral disorders, blood disorders, liver disorders, skin disorders, prostate disorders, endocrine disorders, and obesity. Lipid metabolism disorders include, but are not limited to, dyslipidemia, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, sitosterolemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, xanthoma, combined hyperlipidemia, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, tangier disease, abetalipoproteinemia, erectile dysfunction, fatty liver disease, and hepatitis. Billary disorders include gallbladder disorders such as for example, gallstones, gall bladder cancer cholangitis, or primary sclerosing cholangitis; or bile duct disorders such as for example, cholecystitis, bile duct cancer or fascioliasis. Inflammatory disorders include tissue and organ inflammation such as kidney inflammation (e.g., nephritis), gastrointestinal system inflammation (e.g., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis); necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC); pancreatic inflammation (e.g., pancreatis), lung inflammation (e.g., bronchitis or asthma) or skin inflammation (e.g., psoriasis, eczema). Lung Disorders include for example chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and fibrosis. Cancer includes tissue and organ carcinogenesis including metastases such as for example gastrointestinal cancer, (e.g., gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer colorectal cancer, intestinal cancer, anal cancer, liver cancer, gallbladder cancer, or colon cancer; lung cancer; thyroid cancer; skin cancer (e.g., melanoma); oral cancer; urinary tract cancer (e.g. bladder cancer or kidney cancer); blood cancer (e.g. myeloma or leukemia) or prostate cancer. Cardiac disorders include for example, congestive heart failure, trachea cardia hypertension, high cholesterol, or high triglycerides. Cardiovascular disorders include for example aneurysm, angina, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), cerebrovasculardisease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction (heart attack), or peripheral vascular disease. Liver disorders include for example cirrhosis and fibrosis. In addition, GC-C agonist may also be useful to facilitate liver regeneration in liver transplant patients. Eye disorders include for example increased intra-ocular pressure, glaucoma, dry eyes retinal degeneration, disorders of tear glands or eye inflammation. Skin disorders include for example xerosis. Oral disorders include for example dry mouth (xerostomia), Sjögren's syndrome, gum diseases (e.g., periodontal disease), or salivary gland duct blockage or malfunction. Prostate disorders include for example benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Endocrine disorders include for example diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and cystic fibrosis. 1.3.1 Therapeutically Effective Dosages Disorders are treated, prevented or alleviated by administering to a subject, e.g., a mammal such as a human in need thereof, a therapeutically effective dose of a GCC agonist peptide. The present invention is based in part on the unexpected results of clinical trials in humans which demonstrated that the formulations of the invention are therapeutically effective at much lower doses than predicted based on animal studies. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the therapeutically effective dose is between 0.01 milligrams (mg) and 10 mg per unit dose. The term “unit dose” refers to a single drug delivery entity, e.g., a tablet, capsule, solution or inhalation formulation. In one embodiment, the effective dose is between 0.01 mg and 9 mg. In another embodiment, the effective dose is between 0.01 mg and 5 mg. In another embodiment, the effective dose is between 0.01 mg and 3 mg. In another embodiment, the effective dose is between 0.10 mg and 5 mg. In another embodiment, the effective dose is between 0.10 mg and 3 mg. In one embodiment, the unit dose is 0.01 mg, 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, 0.3 mg, 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, 1.5 mg, 2.0 mg, 2.5 mg, 3.0 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg. In one embodiment, the unit dose is 0.3 mg, 1.0 mg, 3.0 mg, 9.0 mg, or 9.5 mg. The GCC agonist peptides may be in a pharmaceutical composition in unit dose form, together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. The amount of peptide present should be sufficient to have a positive therapeutic effect when administered to a patient. What constitutes a “positive therapeutic effect” will depend upon the particular condition being treated and will include any significant improvement in a condition readily recognized by one of skill in the art. The GCC agonists for use in the methods described above are preferably administered orally. Dosage forms include solutions, suspensions, emulsions, tablets, and capsules. The total daily dose can be administered to the patient in a single dose, or in multiple sub-doses. Typically, sub-doses can be administered two to six times per day, preferably two to four times per day, and even more preferably two to three times per day. Preferably, a single daily dose is administered. The GCC agonists may be administered as either the sole active agent or in combination with one or more additional active agents. In all cases, additional active agents should be administered at a dosage that is therapeutically effective using the existing art as a guide. The GCC agonists may be administered in a single composition or sequentially with the one or more additional active agents. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist is administered in combination with one or more inhibitors of cGMP dependent phosphodiesterase such as suldinac sulfone, zaprinast, motapizone, vardenafil, or sildenifil. In another embodiment, the GCC agonist is administered in combination with one or more chemotherapeutic agents. In another embodiment, the GCC agonist is administered in combination with one or more or anti-inflammatory drugs such as steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as aspirin. Combination therapy can be achieved by administering two or more agents, e.g., a GCC agonist peptide described herein and another compound, each of which is formulated and administered separately, or by administering two or more agents in a single formulation. Other combinations are also encompassed by combination therapy. For example, two agents can be formulated together and administered in conjunction with a separate formulation containing a third agent. While the two or more agents in the combination therapy can be administered simultaneously, they need not be. For example, administration of a first agent (or combination of agents) can precede administration of a second agent (or combination of agents) by minutes, hours, days, or weeks. Thus, the two or more agents can be administered within minutes of each other or within 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 24 hours of each other or within 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14 days of each other or within 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 weeks of each other. In some cases even longer intervals are possible. While in many cases it is desirable that the two or more agents used in a combination therapy be present in within the patient's body at the same time, this need not be so. The GCC agonist peptides described herein may be combined with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, e.g., sulindae sulfone, Zaprinast, sildenafil, vardenafil or tadalafil to further enhance levels of cGMP in the target tissues or organs. Combination therapy can also include two or more administrations of one or more of the agents used in the combination. For example, if agent X and agent Y are used in a combination, one could administer them sequentially in any combination one or more times, e.g., in the order X-Y-X, X-X-Y, Y-X-Y, Y-Y-X, X-X-Y-Y, etc. 1.3.2 Exemplary Agents for Combination Therapy The GCC agonist formulations of the invention may be administered alone or in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents as part of a therapeutic regimen for the treatment or prevention of a gastrointestinal disease or disorder. In some embodiments, the GCC agonist formulation comprises one or more additional therapeutic agents. In other embodiments, the GCC agonist is formulated separately from the one or more additional therapeutic agents. In accordance with this embodiment, the GCC agonist is administered either simultaneously, sequentially, or at a different time than the one or more additional therapeutic agents. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist formulation is administered in combination with one or more additional therapeutic agents selected from the group consisting of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, cyclic nucleotides (such as cGMP and cAMP), a laxative (such as SENNA or METAMUCIL), a stool softner, an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy for IBD (such as REMICADE, ENBREL, or HUMIRA), and anti-inflammatory drugs (such as COX-2 inhibitors, sulfasalazine, 5-ASA derivatives and NSAIDS). In certain embodiments, the GCC agonist formulation is administered in combination with an effective dose of an inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (cGMP-PDE) either concurrently or sequentially with said GCC agonist. cGMP-PDE inhibitors include, for example, suldinac sulfone, zaprinast, motapizone, vardenifil, and sildenafil. In another embodiment, the GCC agonist formulation is administered in combination with inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide transporters. Further examples of therapeutic agents that may be administered in combination with the GCC agonist formulations of the invention are given in the following sections. 1.3.2.1 Agents to Treat Gastrointestinal Cancers The GCC agonist formulations described herein can be used in combination with one or more antitumor agents including but not limited to alkylating agents, epipodophyllotoxins, nitrosoureas, anti-metabolites, vinca alkaloids, anthracycline antibiotics, nitrogen mustard agents, and the like. Particular antitumor agents include tamoxifen, taxol, etoposide, and 5-fluorouracil. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist formulations are used in combination with an antiviral agent or a monoclonal antibody. Non-limiting examples of antitumor agents that can be used in combination with the GCC agonist formulations of the invention for the treatment of colon cancer include anti-proliferative agents, agents for DNA modification or repair, DNA synthesis inhibitors, DNA/RNA transcription regulators, RNA processing inhibitors, agents that affect protein expression, synthesis and stability, agents that affect protein localization or their ability to exert their physiological action, agents that interfere with protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions, agents that act by RNA interference, receptor binding molecules of any chemical nature (including small molecules and antibodies), targeted toxins, enzyme activators, enzyme inhibitors, gene regulators, HSP-90 inhibitors, molecules interfering with microtubules or other cytoskeletal components or cell adhesion and motility, agents for phototherapy, and therapy adjuncts. Representative anti-proliferative agents include N-acetyl-D-sphingosine (C.sub.2 ceramide), apigenin, berberine chloride, dichloromethylenediphosphonic acid disodium salt, loe-emodine, emodin, HA 14-1, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine (C.sub.6 ceramide), 7b-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, hyperforin, parthenolide, and rapamycin. Representative agents for DNA modification and repair include aphidicolin, bleomycin sulfate, carboplatin, carmustine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide monohydrate, cyclophosphamide monohydrate ISOPAC®, cis-diammineplatinum(II) dichloride (Cisplatin), esculetin, melphalan, methoxyamine hydrochloride, mitomycin C, mitoxantrone dihydrochloride, oxaliplatin, and streptozocin. Representative DNA synthesis inhibitors include (.+−.)amethopterin (methotrexate), 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide, aminopterin, cytosine b-D-arabinofurdnoside (Ara-C), cytosine b-D-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C) hydrochloride, 2-fluoroadenine-9-b-D-arabinofuranoside (Fludarabine des-phosphate; F-ara-A), 5-fluoro-5′-deoxyuridinc, 5-fluorouracil, ganciclovir, hydroxyurea, 6-mercaptopurine, and 6-thioguanine. Representative DNA/RNA transcription regulators include actinomycin D, daunorubicin hydrochloride, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-b-D-ribofuranoside, doxorubicin hydrochloride, homoharringtonine, and idarubicin hydrochloride. Representative enzyme activators and inhibitors include forskolin, DL-aminoglutethimide, apicidin, Bowman-Birk Inhibitor, butein, (S)-(+)-camptothecin, curcumin, (−)-deguelin, (−)-depudecin, doxycycline hyclate, etoposide, formestane, fostriecin sodium salt, hispidin, 2-imino-1-imidazolidineacetic acid (Cyclocreatine), oxamflatin, 4-phenylbutyric acid, roscovitine, sodium valproate, trichostatin A, tyrphostin AG 34, tyrphostin AG 879, urinary trypsin inhibitor fragment, valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid), and XK469. Representative gene regulators include 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, 5-azacytidine, cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3), ciglitizone, cyproterone acetate, 15-deoxy-D.sup.12,14-prostaglandin J.sub.2, epitestosterone, flutamide, glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt (glycyrrhizin), 4-hydroxytamoxifen, mifepristone, procainamide hydrochloride, raloxifene hydrochloride, all trans-retinal (vitamin A aldehyde), retinoic acid (vitamin A acid), 9-cis-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, retinoic acid p-hydroxyanilide, retinol (Vitamin A), tamoxifen, tamoxifen citrate salt, tetradecylthioacetic acid, and troglitazone. Representative HSP-90 inhibitors include 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and geldanamycin. Representative microtubule inhibitors include colchicines, dolastatin 15, nocodazole, taxanes and in particular paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, rhizoxin, vinblastine sulfate salt, vincristine sulfate salt, and vindesine sulfate salt and vinorelbine (Navelbine) ditartrate salt. Representative agents for performing phototherapy include photoactive porphyrin rings, hypericin, 5-methoxypsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, psoralen and ursodeoxycholic acid. Representative agents used as therapy adjuncts include amifostine, 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide, brefeldin A, cimetidine, phosphomycin disodium salt, leuprolide (leuprorelin) acetate salt, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) acetate salt, lectin, papaverine hydrochloride, pifithrin-a, (−)-scopolamine hydrobromide, and thapsigargin. The agents can also be anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) agents, as such are known in the art. Several antibodies and small molecules are currently in clinical trials or have been approved that function by inhibiting VEGF, such as Avastin (Bevacizumab), SU5416, SU11248 and BAY 43-9006. The agents can also be directed against growth factor receptors such as those of the EGF/Erb-B family such as EGF Receptor (Iressa or Gefitinib, and Tarceva or Erlotinib), Erb-B2, receptor (Herceptin or Trastuzumab), other receptors (such as Rituximab or Rituxan/MabThera), tyrosine kinases, non-receptor tyrosine kinases, cellular serine/threonine kinases (including MAP kinases), and various other proteins whose deregulation contribute to oncogenesis (such as small/Ras family and large/heterotrimeric G proteins). Several antibodies and small molecules targeting those molecules are currently at various stages of development (including approved for treatment or in clinical trials). In a preferred embodiment, the invention provides a method for treating colon cancer in a subject in need thereof by administering to the subject a GCC agonist formulation in combination with one or more antitumor agent selected from the group consisting of paclitaxel, docetaxel, tamoxifen, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, cisplatin, etoposide, topotecan, irinotecan, anastrozole, rituximab, trastuzumab, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, gentuzumab, carboplatin, interferons, and doxorubicin. In a particular embodiment the antitumor agent is paclitaxel. In a further embodiment, the method further comprises an antitumor agent selected from the group consisting of 5-FU, doxorubicin, vinorelbine, Cytoxan, and cisplatin. 1.3.2.2 Agents that Treat Crohn's Disease In one embodiment, a GCC agonist formulation of the invention is administered as part of a combination therapy with one or more additional therapeutic agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease. Non-limiting examples of the one or more additional therapeutic agents include sulfasalazine and other mesalamine-containing drugs, generally known as 5-ASA agents, such as Asacol, Dipentum, or Pentasa, or infliximab (REMICADE). In certain embodiments, the one or more additional agents is a corticosteroid or an immunosuppressive agent such as 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine. In another embodiment, the one or more additional agents is an antidiarrheal agent such as diphenoxylate, loperamide, or codeine. 1.3.2.3 Agents that Treat Ulcerative Colitis In one embodiment, a GCC agonist formulation of the invention is administered as part of a combination therapy with one or more additional therapeutic agents for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The agents that are used to treat ulcerative colitis overlap with those used to treat Chrohn's Disease. Non-limiting examples of the one or more additional therapeutic agents that can be used in combination with a GCC agonist formulation of the invention include aminosalicylates (drugs that contain 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA)) such as sulfasalazine, olsalazine, mesalamine, and balsalazide. Other therapeutic agents that can be used include corticosteroids, such as prednisone and hydrocortisone, immunomodulators, such as azathioprine, 6-mercapto-purine (6-MP), cytokines, interleukins, and lymphokines, and anti-TNF-alpha agents, including the thiazolidinediones or glitazones such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. In one embodiment, the one or more additional therapeutic agents includes both cyclosporine A and 6-MP or azathioprine for the treatment of active, severe ulcerative colitis. 1.3.2.4 Agents that Treat Constipation/Irritable Bowel Syndrome In one embodiment, a GCC agonist formulation of the invention is administered as part of a combination therapy with one or more additional therapeutic agents for the treatment of constipation, such as that associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Non-limiting examples of the one or more additional therapeutic agents include laxatives such as SENNA, MIRALAX, LACTULOSE, PEG, or calcium polycarbophil), stool softeners (such as mineral oil or COLACE), bulking agents (such as METAMUCIL or bran), agents such as ZELNORM (also called tegaserod), and anticholinergic medications such as BENTYL and LEVSIN. 1.3.2.5 Agents for the Treatment of Postoperative Ileus In one embodiment, a GCC agonist formulation of the invention is administered as part of a combination therapy with one or more additional therapeutic agents for the treatment of postoperative ileus. Non-limiting examples of the one or more additional therapeutic agents include ENTEREG (alvimopan; formerly called ado lor/ADL 8-2698), conivaptan, and related agents describes in U.S. Pat. No. 6,645,959. 1.3.2.6 Anti-Obesity Agents In one embodiment, a GCC agonist formulation of the invention is administered as part of a combination therapy with one or more additional therapeutic agents for the treatment of obesity. Non-limiting examples of the one or more additional therapeutic agents include 1 1β HSD-I (11-beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase type 1) inhibitors, such as BVT 3498, BVT 2733, 3-(1-adamantyl)-4-ethyl-5-(ethylthio)-4H-1,2,4-triazole, 3-(1-adamantyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole, 3-adamantanyl-4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,3a-decahydro-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a][11]annulene, and those compounds disclosed in WO01/90091, WOO 1/90090, WOO 1/90092 and WO02/072084; 5HT antagonists such as those in WO03/037871, WO03/037887, and the like; 5HTIa modulators such as carbidopa, benserazide and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,207,699, WO03/031439, and the like; 5HT2c (serotonin receptor 2c) agonists, such as BVT933, DPCA37215, IK264, PNU 22394, WAY161503, R-1065, SB 243213 (Glaxo Smith Kline) and YM 348 and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,914,250, WO00/77010, WO02/36596, WO02/48124, WO02/10169, WO01/66548, WO02/44152, WO02/51844, WO02/40456, and WO02/40457; 5HT6 receptor modulators, such as those in WO03/030901, WO03/035061, WO03/039547, and the like; acyl-estrogens, such as oleoyl-estrone, disclosed in del Mar-Grasa, M. et al, Obesity Research, 9:202-9 (2001) and Japanese Patent Application No. JP 2000256190; anorectic bicyclic compounds such as 1426 (Aventis) and 1954 (Aventis), and the compounds disclosed in WO00/18749, WO01/32638, WO01/62746, WO01/62747, and WO03/015769; CB 1 (cannabinoid-1 receptor) antagonist/inverse agonists such as rimonabant (Acomplia; Sanofi), SR-147778 (Sanofi), SR-141716 (Sanofi), BAY 65-2520 (Bayer), and SLV 319 (Solvay), and those disclosed in patent publications U.S. Pat. No. 4,973,587, U.S. Pat. No. 5,013,837, U.S. Pat. No. 5,081,122, U.S. Pat. No. 5,112,820, U.S. Pat. No. 5,292,736, U.S. Pat. No. 5,532,237, U.S. Pat. No. 5,624,941, U.S. Pat. No. 6,028,084, U.S. Pat. No. 6,509,367, U.S. Pat. No. 6,509,367, WO96/33159, WO97/29079, WO98/31227, WO98/33765, WO98/37061, WO98/41519, WO98/43635, WO98/43636, WO99/02499, WO00/10967, WO00/10968, WO01/09120, WO01/58869, WO01/64632, WO01/64633, WO01/64634, WO01/70700, WO01/96330, WO02/076949, WO03/006007, WO03/007887, WO03/020217, WO03/026647, WO03/026648, WO03/027069, WO03/027076, WO03/027114, WO03/037332, WO03/040107, WO03/086940, WO03/084943 and EP658546; CCK-A (cholecystokinin-A) agonists, such as AR-R 15849, GI 181771 (GSK), JMV-180, A-71378, A-71623 and SR146131 (Sanofi), and those described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,739,106; CNTF (Ciliary neurotrophic factors), such as GI-181771 (Glaxo-Smith-Kline), SR1 46131 (Sanofi Synthelabo), butabindide, PD 170,292, and PD 149164 (Pfizer); CNTF derivatives, such as Axokine® (Regeneron), and those disclosed in WO94/09134, WO98/22128, and WO99/43813; dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP-IV) inhibitors, such as isoleucine thiazolidide, valine pyrrolidide, NVP-DPP728, LAF237, P93/01, P 3298, TSL 225 (tryptophyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid; disclosed by Yamada et al, Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Lett. 8 (1998) 1537-1540), TMC-2A/2B/2C, CD26 inhibtors, FE 999011, P9310/K364, VIP 0177, SDZ 274-444, 2-cyanopyrrolidides and 4-cyanopyrrolidides as disclosed by Ashworth et al, Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Lett., Vol. 6, No. 22, pp 1163-1166 and 2745-2748 (1996) and the compounds disclosed patent publications. WO99/38501, WO99/46272, WO99/67279 (Probiodrug), WO99/67278 (Probiodrug), WO99/61431 (Probiodrug), WO02/083128, WO02/062764, WO03/000180, WO03/000181, WO03/000250, WO03/002530, WO03/002531, WO03/002553, WO03/002593, WO03/004498, WO03/004496, WO03/017936, WO03/024942, WO03/024965, WO03/033524, WO03/037327 and EP1258476; growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonists/antagonists, such as NN703, hexarelin, MK-0677 (Merck), SM-130686, CP-424391 (Pfizer), LY 444,711 (Eli Lilly), L-692,429 and L-163,255, and such as those disclosed in U.S. Ser. No. 09/662,448, U.S. provisional application 60/203,335, U.S. Pat. No. 6,358,951, US2002049196, US2002/022637, WO01/56592 and WO02/32888; H3 (histamine H3) antagonist/inverse agonists, such as thioperamide, 3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl N-(4-pentenyl)carbamate), clobenpropit, iodophenpropit, imoproxifan, GT2394 (Gliatech), and A331440, O-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanol]carbamates (Kiec-Kononowicz, K. et al., Pharmazie, 55:349-55 (2000)), piperidine-containing histamine H3-receptor antagonists (Lazewska, D. et al., Pharmazie, 56:927-32 (2001), benzophenone derivatives and related compounds (Sasse, A. et al., Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim) 334:45-52 (2001)), substituted N-phenylcarbamates (Reidemeister, S. et al., Pharmazie, 55:83-6 (2000)), and proxifan derivatives (Sasse, A. et al., J. Med. Chem. 43:3335-43 (2000)) and histamine H3 receptor modulators such as those disclosed in WO02/15905, WO03/024928 and WO03/024929; leptin derivatives, such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,552,524, U.S. Pat. No. 5,552,523, U.S. Pat. No. 5,552,522, U.S. Pat. No. 5,521,283, WO96/23513, WO96/23514, WO96/23515, WO96/23516, WO96/23517, WO96/23518, WO96/23519, and WO96/23520; leptin, including recombinant human leptin (PEG-OB, Hoffman La Roche) and recombinant methionyl human leptin (Amgen); lipase inhibitors, such as tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat/Xenical®), Triton WR1 339, RHC80267, lipstatin, teasaponin, diethylumbelliferyl phosphate, FL-386, WAY-121898, Bay-N-3176, valilactone, esteracin, ebelactone A, ebelactone B, and RHC 80267, and those disclosed in patent publications WO01/77094, U.S. Pat. No. 4,598,089, U.S. Pat. No. 4,452,813, U.S. Pat. No. 5,512,565, U.S. Pat. No. 5,391,571, U.S. Pat. No. 5,602,151, U.S. Pat. No. 4,405,644, U.S. Pat. No. 4,189,438, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,242,453; lipid metabolism modulators such as maslinic acid, erythrodiol, ursolic acid uvaol, betulinic acid, betulin, and the like and compounds disclosed in WO03/011267; Mc4r (melanocortin 4 receptor) agonists, such as CHIR86036 (Chiron), ME-10142, ME-10145, and HS-131 (Melacure), and those disclosed in PCT publication Nos. WO99/64002, WO00/74679, WOO 1/991752, WOO 1/25192, WOO 1/52880, WOO 1/74844, WOO 1/70708, WO01/70337, WO01/91752, WO02/059095, WO02/059107, WO02/059108, WO02/059117, WO02/06276, WO02/12166, WO02/11715, WO02/12178, WO02/15909, WO02/38544, WO02/068387, WO02/068388, WO02/067869, WO02/081430, WO03/06604, WO03/007949, WO03/009847, WO03/009850, WO03/013509, and WO03/031410; McSr (melanocortin 5 receptor) modulators, such as those disclosed in WO97/19952, WO00/15826, WO00/15790, US20030092041; melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor (MCHR) antagonists, such as T-226296 (Takeda), SB 568849, SNP-7941 (Synaptic), and those disclosed in patent publications WOO 1/21169, WO01/82925, WO01/87834, WO02/051809, WO02/06245, WO02/076929, WO02/076947, WO02/04433, WO02/51809, WO02/083134, WO02/094799, WO03/004027, WO03/13574, WO03/15769, WO03/028641, WO03/035624, WO03/033476, WO03/033480, JP13226269, and JP1437059; mGluR5 modulators such as those disclosed in WO03/029210, WO03/047581, WO03/048137, WO03/051315, WO03/051833, WO03/053922, WO03/059904, and the like; serotoninergic agents, such as fenfluramine (such as Pondimin® (Benzeneethanamine, N-ethyl-alpha-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-, hydrochloride), Robbins), dexfenfluramine (such as Redux® (Benzeneethanamine, N-ethyl-alpha-methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-, hydrochloride), Interneuron) and sibutramine ((Meridia®, Knoll/Reductil™) including racemic mixtures, as optically pure isomers (+) and (−), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvents, hydrates, clathrates and prodrugs thereof including sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate salts thereof, and those compounds disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,746,680, U.S. Pat. No. 4,806,570, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,436,272, US20020006964, WOO 1/27068, and WOO 1/62341; NE (norepinephrine) transport inhibitors, such as GW 320659, despiramine, talsupram, and nomifensine; NPY 1 antagonists, such as BIBP3226, J-115814, BIBO 3304, LY-357897, CP-671906, GI-264879A, and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,001,836, WO96/14307, WO01/23387, WO99/51600, WO01/85690, WO01/85098, WO01/85173, and WO01/89528; NPY5 (neuropeptide Y Y5) antagonists, such as 152,804, GW-569180A, GW-594884A, GW-587081X, GW-548118X, FR235208, FR226928, FR240662, FR252384, 1229U91, GI-264879A, CGP71683A, LY-377897, LY-366377, PD-160170, SR-120562A, SR-120819A, JCF-104, and H409/22 and those compounds disclosed in patent publications U.S. Pat. No. 6,140,354, U.S. Pat. No. 6,191,160, U.S. Pat. No. 6,218,408, U.S. Pat. No. 6,258,837, U.S. Pat. No. 6,313,298, U.S. Pat. No. 6,326,375, U.S. Pat. No. 6,329,395, U.S. Pat. No. 6,335,345, U.S. Pat. No. 6,337,332, U.S. Pat. No. 6,329,395, U.S. Pat. No. 6,340,683, EP01010691, EP-01044970, WO97/19682, WO97/20820, WO97/20821, WO97/20822, WO97/20823, WO98/27063, WO00/107409, WO00/185714, WO00/185730, WO00/64880, WO00/68197, WO00/69849, WO/0113917, WO01/09120, WO01/14376, WO01/85714, WO01/85730, WO01/07409, WO01/02379, WO01/23388, WO01/23389, WOO 1/44201, WO01/62737, WO01/62738, WO01/09120, WO02/20488, WO02/22592, WO02/48152, WO02/49648, WO02/051806, WO02/094789, WO03/009845, WO03/014083, WO03/022849, WO03/028726 and Norman et al, J. Med. Chem. 43:4288-4312 (2000); opioid antagonists, such as nalmefene (REVEX®), 3-methoxynaltrexone, methylnaltrexone, naloxone, and naltrexone (e.g. PT901; Pain Therapeutics, Inc.) and those disclosed in US20050004155 and WO00/21509; orexin antagonists, such as SB-334867-A and those disclosed in patent publications WO01/96302, WO01/68609, WO02/44172, WO02/51232, WO02/51838, WO02/089800, WO02/090355, WO03/023561, WO03/032991, and WO03/037847; PDE inhibitors (e.g. compounds which slow the degradation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and/or cyclic GMP (cGMP) by inhibition of the phosphodiesterases, which can lead to a relative increase in the intracellular concentration of cAMP and cGMP; possible PDE inhibitors are primarily those substances which are to be numbered among the class consisting of the PDE3 inhibitors, the class consisting of the PDE4 inhibitors and/or the class consisting of the PDE5 inhibitors, in particular those substances which can be designated as mixed types of PDE3/4 inhibitors or as mixed types of PDE3/4/5 inhibitors) such as those disclosed in patent publications DE1470341, DE2108438, DE2123328, DE2305339, DE2305575, DE2315801, DE2402908, DE2413935, DE2451417, DE2459090, DE2646469, DE2727481, DE2825048, DE2837161, DE2845220, DE2847621, DE2934747, DE3021792, DE3038166, DE3044568, EP000718, EP0008408, EP0010759, EP0059948, EP0075436, EP0096517, EP0112987, EP01 16948, EP0150937, EP0158380, EP0161632, EP0161918, EP0167121, EP0199127, EP0220044, EP0247725, EP0258191, EP0272910, EP0272914, EP0294647, EP0300726, EP0335386, EP0357788, EP0389282, EP0406958, EP0426180, EP0428302, EP0435811, EP0470805, EP0482208, EP0490823, EP0506194, EP0511865, EP0527117, EP0626939, EP0664289, EP0671389, EP0685474, EP0685475, EP0685479, JP92234389, JP94329652, JP95010875, U.S. Pat. No. 4,963,561, U.S. Pat. No. 5,141,931, WO9117991, WO9200968, WO9212961, WO9307146, WO9315044, WO9315045, WO9318024, WO9319068, WO9319720, WO9319747, WO9319749, WO9319751, WO9325517, WO9402465, WO9406423, WO9412461, WO9420455, WO9422852, WO9425437, WO9427947, WO9500516, WO9501980, WO9503794, WO9504045, WO9504046, WO9505386, WO9508534, WO9509623, WO9509624, WO9509627, WO9509836, WO9514667, WO9514680, WO9514681, WO9517392, WO9517399, WO9519362, WO9522520, WO9524381, WO9527692, WO9528926, WO9535281, WO9535282, WO9600218, WO9601825, WO9602541, WO96/1917, DE3142982, DE1116676, DE2162096, EP0293063, EP0463756, EP0482208, EP0579496, EP0667345 U.S. Pat. No. 6,331,543, US20050004222 (including those disclosed in formulas I-XIII and paragraphs 37-39, 85-0545 and 557-577), WO9307124, EP0163965, EP0393500, EP0510562, EP0553174, WO9501338 and WO9603399, as well as PDE5 inhibitors (such as RX-RA-69, SCH-51866, KT-734, vesnarinone, zaprinast, SKF-96231, ER-21355, BF/GP-385, NM-702 and sildenafil (Viagra™)), PDE4 inhibitors (such as etazolate, IC163197, RP73401, imazolidinone (RO-20-1724), MEM 1414 (R1533/R1500; Pharmacia Roche), denbufylline, rolipram, oxagrelate, nitraquazone, Y-590, DH-6471, SKF-94120, motapizone, lixazinone, indolidan, olprinone, atizoram, KS-506-G, dipamfylline, BMY-43351, atizoram, arofylline, filaminast, PDB-093, UCB-29646, CDP-840, SKF-107806, piclamilast, RS-17597, RS-25344-000, SB-207499, TIBENELAST, SB-210667, SB-211572, SB-211600, SB-212066, SB-212179, GW-3600, CDP-840, mopidamol, anagrelide, ibudilast, amrinone, pimobendan, cilostazol, quazinone and N-(3,5-dichloropyrid-4-yl)-3-cyclopropylmethoxy4-difluoromethoxybenzamide, PDE3 inhibitors (such as IC1153, 100, bemorandane (RWJ 22867), MCI-154, UD-CG 212, sulmazole, ampizone, cilostamide, carbazeran, piroximone, imazodan, CI-930, siguazodan, adibendan, saterinone, SKF-95654, SDZ-MKS-492, 349-U-85, emoradan, EMD-53998, EMD-57033, NSP-306, NSP-307, revizinone, NM-702, WIN-62582 and WIN-63291, enoximone and milrinone, PDE3/4 inhibitors (such as benafentrine, trequinsin, ORG-30029, zardaverine, L-686398, SDZ-ISQ-844, ORG-20241, EMD-54622, and tolafentrine) and other PDE inhibitors (such as vinpocetin, papaverine, enprofylline, cilomilast, fenoximone, pentoxifylline, roflumilast, tadalafil(Cialis®), theophylline, and vardenafil(Levitra®); Neuropeptide Y2 (NPY2) agonists include but are not limited to: polypeptide YY and fragments and variants thereof (e.g. YY3-36 (PYY3-36)(N. Engl. J. Med. 349:941, 2003; IKPEAPGE DASPEELNRY YASLRHYLNL VTRQRY (SEQ ID NO:XXX)) and PYY agonists such as those disclosed in WO02/47712, WO03/026591, WO03/057235, and WO03/027637; serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as, paroxetine, fluoxetine (Prozac™), fluvoxamine, sertraline, citalopram, and imipramine, and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,162,805, U.S. Pat. No. 6,365,633, WO03/00663, WOO 1/27060, and WOO 1/162341; thyroid hormone β agonists, such as KB-2611 (KaroBioBMS), and those disclosed in WO02/15845, WO97/21993, WO99/00353, GB98/284425, U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/183,223, and Japanese Patent Application No. JP 2000256190; UCP-I (uncoupling protein-1), 2, or 3 activators, such as phytanic acid, 4-[(E)-2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-napthalenyl)-1-propenyl]benzoic acid (TTNPB), retinoic acid, and those disclosed in WO99/00123; β3 (beta adrenergic receptor 3) agonists, such as AJ9677/TAK677 (Dainippon/Takeda), L750355 (Merck), CP331648 (Pfizer), CL-316,243, SB 418790, BRL-37344, L-796568, BMS-196085, BRL-35135A, CGP12177A, BTA-243, GW 427353, Trecadrine, Zeneca D7114, N-5984 (Nisshin Kyorin), LY-377604 (Lilly), SR 59119A, and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,541,204, U.S. Pat. No. 5,770,615, U.S. Pat. No. 5,491,134, U.S. Pat. No. 5,776,983, US488064, U.S. Pat. No. 5,705,515, U.S. Pat. No. 5,451,677, WO94/18161, WO95/29159, WO97/46556, WO98/04526 and WO98/32753, WO01/74782, WO02/32897, WO03/014113, WO03/016276, WO03/016307, WO03/024948, WO03/024953 and WO03/037881; noradrenergic agents including, but not limited to, diethylpropion (such as Tenuate® (1-propanone, 2-(diethylamino)-1-phenyl-, hydrochloride), Merrell), dextroamphetamine (also known as dextroamphetamine sulfate, dexamphetamine, dexedrine, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Robese, Spancap #1), mazindol ((or 5-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,5-dihydro-3H-imidazo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-ol) such as Sanorex®, Novartis or Mazanor®, Wyeth Ayerst), phenylpropanolamine (or Benzenemethanol, alpha-(1-aminoethyl)-, hydrochloride), phentermine ((or Phenol, 3-[[4,5-duhydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl](4-methylpheny-1)amino], monohydrochloride) such as Adipex-P®, Lemmon, FASTIN®, Smith-Kline Beecham and IonaminO, Medeva), phendimetrazine ((or (2S,3S)-3,4-Dimethyl-2phenylmorpholine L-(+)-tartrate (1:1)) such as Metra® (Forest), Plegine® (Wyeth-Ay erst), Prelu-2® (Boehringer Ingelheim), and Statobex® (Lemmon), phendamine tartrate (such as Thephorin® (2,3,4,9-Tetrahydro-2-methyl-9-phenyl-1H-indenol[2,1-c]pyridine L-(+)-tartrate (1:1)), Hoffmann-LaRoche), methamphetamine (such as Desoxyn®, Abbot ((S)—N, (alpha)-dimethylbenzeneethanamine hydrochloride)), and phendimetrazine tartrate (such as Bontril® Slow-Release Capsules, Amarin (−3,4-Dimethyl-2-phenylmorpholine Tartrate); fatty acid oxidation upregulator/inducers such as Famoxin® (Genset); monamine oxidase inhibitors including but not limited to befloxatone, moclobemide, brofaromine, phenoxathine, esuprone, befol, toloxatone, pirlindol, amiflamine, sercloremine, bazinaprine, lazabemide, milacemide, caroxazone and other certain compounds as disclosed by WO01/12176; and other anti-obesity agents such as 5HT-2 agonists, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) inhibitors such as those described in WO03/072197, alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), AOD9604, appetite suppressants such as those in WO03/40107, ATL-962 (Alizyme PLC), benzocaine, benzphetamine hydrochloride (Didrex), bladderwrack (focus vesiculosus), BRS3 (bombesin receptor subtype 3) agonists, bupropion, caffeine, CCK agonists, chitosan, chromium, conjugated linoleic acid, corticotropin-releasing hormone agonists, dehydroepiandrosterone, DGAT1(diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1) inhibitors, DGAT2 (diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2) inhibitors, dicarboxylate transporter inhibitors, ephedra, exendin-4 (an inhibitor of glp-1) FAS (fatty acid synthase) inhibitors (such as Cerulenin and C75), fat resorption inhibitors (such as those in WO03/053451, and the like), fatty acid transporter inhibitors, natural water soluble fibers (such as psyllium, plantago , guar, oat, pectin), galanin antagonists, galega (Goat's Rue, French Lilac), garcinia cambogia, germander ( teucrium chamaedrys ), ghrelin antibodies and ghrelin antagonists (such as those disclosed in WO01/87335, and WO02/08250), polypeptide hormones and variants thereof which affect the islet cell secretion, such as the hormones of the secretin/gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon-like polypeptide II (GLP-II)/glicentin/glucagon gene family and/or those of the adrenomedullin/amylin/calcitonin gene related polypeptide (CGRP) gene family includingGLP-1 (glucagon-like polypeptide 1) agonists (e.g. (1) exendin-4, (2) those GLP-I molecules described in US20050130891 including GLP-1(7-34), GLP-1(7-35), GLP-1(7-36) or GLP-1(7-37) in its C-terminally carboxylated or amidated form or as modified GLP-I polypeptides and modifications thereof including those described in paragraphs 17-44 of US20050130891, and derivatives derived from GLP-1-(7-34)COOH and the corresponding acid amide are employed which have the following general formula: R—NH-HAEGTFTSDVSYLEGQAAKEFIAWLVK-CONH 2 wherein R═H or an organic compound having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms. Preferably, R is the residue of a carboxylic acid. Particularly preferred are the following carboxylic acid residues: formyl, acetyl, propionyl, isopropionyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl.) and glp-1 (glucagon-like polypeptide-1), glucocorticoid antagonists, glucose transporter inhibitors, growth hormone secretagogues (such as those disclosed and specifically described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,536,716), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and modulators thereof (as in WO03/057237, and the like), L-carnitine, Mc3r (melanocortin 3 receptor) agonists, MCH2R (melanin concentrating hormone 2R) agonist/antagonists, melanin concentrating hormone antagonists, melanocortin agonists (such as Melanotan II or those described in WO 99/64002 and WO 00/74679), nomame herba, phosphate transporter inhibitors, phytopharm compound 57 (CP 644,673), pyruvate, SCD-I (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1) inhibitors, T71 (Tularik, Inc., Boulder Colo.), Topiramate (Topimax®, indicated as an anti-convulsant which has been shown to increase weight loss), transcription factor modulators (such as those disclosed in WO03/026576), β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase-1 inhibitors ((3-HSD-I), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, p57 (Pfizer), Zonisamide (Zonegran™, indicated as an anti-epileptic which has been shown to lead to weight loss), and the agents disclosed in US20030119428 paragraphs 20-26. 1.3.2.7 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors In certain embodiments, the regimen of combination therapy includes the administration of one or more phosphodiesterase (“PDE”) inhibitors. PDE inhibitors slow the degradation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and/or cyclic GMP (cGMP) by inhibiting phosphodiesterases, which can lead to a relative increase in the intracellular concentration of cAMP and/or cGMP. Non-limiting examples of PDE inhibitors that can be used in combination with the GCC agonists of the invention include PDE3 inhibitors, PDE4 inhibitors and/or PDE5 inhibitors, in particular those substances which can be designated as mixed types of PDE3/4 inhibitors or as mixed types of PDE3/4/5 inhibitors. Non-limiting examples of such PDE inhibitors are described in the following patent applications and patents: DE1470341, DE2108438, DE2123328, DE2305339, DE2305575, DE2315801, DE2402908, DE2413935, DE2451417, DE2459090, DE2646469, DE2727481, DE2825048, DE2837161, DE2845220, DE2847621, DE2934747, DE3021792, DE3038166, DE3044568, EP000718, EP0008408, EP0010759, EP0059948, EP0075436, EP0096517, EP0112987, EP0116948, EP0150937, EP0158380, EP0161632, EP0161918, EP0167121, EP0199127, EP0220044, EP0247725, EP0258191, EP0272910, EP0272914, EP0294647, EP0300726, EP0335386, EP0357788, EP0389282, EP0406958, EP0426180, EP0428302, EP0435811, EP0470805, EP0482208, EP0490823, EP0506194, EP0511865, EP0527117, EP0626939, EP0664289, EP0671389, EP0685474, EP0685475, EP0685479, JP92234389, JP94329652, JP95010875, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,963,561, 5,141,931, WO91/7991, WO9200968, WO92/2961, WO9307146, WO9315044, WO9315045, WO9318024, WO9319068, WO9319720, WO9319747, WO9319749, WO9319751, WO9325517, WO9402465, WO9406423, WO9412461, WO9420455, WO9422852, WO9425437, WO9427947, WO9500516, WO9501980, WO9503794, WO9504045, WO9504046, WO9505386, WO9508534, WO9509623, WO9509624, WO9509627, WO9509836, WO9514667, WO9514680, WO9514681, WO9517392, WO9517399, WO9519362, WO9522520, WO9524381, WO9527692, WO9528926, WO9535281, WO9535282, WO9600218, WO9601825, WO9602541, WO96/1917, DE3142982, DE1116676, DE2162096, EP0293063, EP0463756, EP0482208, EP0579496, EP0667345 U.S. Pat. No. 6,331,543, US20050004222 (including those disclosed in formulas I—XIII and paragraphs 37-39, 85-0545 and 557-577) and WO9307124, EP0163965, EP0393500, EP0510562, EP0553174, WO9501338 and WO9603399. PDE5 inhibitors which may be mentioned by way of example are RX-RA-69, SCH-51866, KT-734, vesnarinone, zaprinast, SKF-96231, ER-21355, BF/GP-385, NM-702 and sildenafil (Viagra®). PDE4 inhibitors which may be mentioned by way of example are RO-20-1724, MEM 1414 (R1533/R1500; Pharmacia Roche), DENBUFYLLINE, ROLIPRAM, OXAGRELATE, NITRAQUAZONE, Y-590, DH-6471, SKF-94120, MOTAPIZONE, LIXAZINONE, INDOLIDAN, OLPRINONE, ATIZORAM, KS-506-G, DIPAMFYLLINE, BMY-43351, ATIZORAM, AROFYLLINE, FILAMINAST, PDB-093, UCB-29646, CDP-840, SKF-107806, PICLAMILAST, RS-17597, RS-25344-000, SB-207499, TIBENELAST, SB-210667, SB-211572, SB-211600, SB-212066, SB-212179, GW-3600, CDP-840, MOPIDAMOL, ANAGRELIDE, IBUDILAST, AMRINONE, PIMOBENDAN, CILOSTAZOL, QUAZINONE and N-(3,5-dichloropyrid-4-yl)-3-cyclopropylmethoxy4-difluoromethoxybenzamide. PDE3 inhibitors which may be mentioned by way of example are SULMAZOLE, AMPIZONE, CILOSTAMIDE, CARBAZERAN, PIROXIMONE, IMAZODAN, CI-930, SIGUAZODAN, ADIBENDAN, SATERINONE, SKF-95654, SDZ-MKS-492, 349-U-85, EMORADAN, EMD-53998, EMD-57033, NSP-306, NSP-307, REVIZINONE, NM-702, WIN-62582 and WIN-63291, ENOXIMONE and MILRINONE. PDE3/4 inhibitors which may be mentioned by way of example are BENAFENTRINE, TREQUINSIN, ORG-30029, ZARDAVERINE, L-686398, SDZ-ISQ-844, ORG-20241, EMD-54622, and TOLAFENTRINE. Other PDE inhibitors include: cilomilast, pentoxifylline, roflumilast, tadalafil(Cialis®), theophylline, and vardenafil(Levitra®), zaprinast (PDE5 specific). GCC AGONIST 1.3.2.8 Analgesic Agents In certain embodiments, the regimen of combination therapy includes the administration of one or more analgesic agents, e.g., an analgesic compound or an analgesic polypeptide. In some embodiments, the GCC agonist formulation is administered simultaneously or sequentially with one or more analgesic agents. In other embodiments, the GCC agonist is covalently linked or attached to an analgesic agent to create a therapeutic conjugate. Non-limiting examples of analgesic agents that can be used include calcium channel blockers, 5HT receptor antagonists (for example 5HT3, 5HT4 and 5HT1 receptor antagonists), opioid receptor agonists (loperamide, fedotozine, and fentanyl), NK1 receptor antagonists, CCK receptor agonists (e.g., loxiglumide), NK1 receptor antagonists, NK3 receptor antagonists, norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (NSRI), vanilloid and cannabanoid receptor agonists, and sialorphin. Further examples of analgesic agents in the various classes are known in the art. In one embodiment, the analgesic agent is an analgesic polypeptide selected from the group consisting of sialorphin-related polypeptides, including those comprising the amino acid sequence QHNPR (SEQ ID NO: 239), including: VQHNPR (SEQ ID NO: 240); VRQHNPR (SEQ ID NO: 241); VRGQHNPR (SEQ ID NO: 242); VRGPQHNPR (SEQ ID NO: 243); VRGPRQHNPR (SEQ ID NO: 244); VRGPRRQHNPR (SEQ ID NO: 245); and RQHNPR (SEQ ID NO: 246). Sialorphin-related polypeptides bind to neprilysin and inhibit neprilysin-mediated breakdown of substance P and Met-enkephalin. Thus, compounds or polypeptides that are inhibitors of neprilysin are useful analgesic agents which can be administered with the GCC agonists described herein or covalently linked to a GCC agonist to form a therapeutic conjugate. Sialorphin and related polypeptides are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,589,750; U.S. 20030078200 A1; and WO 02/051435 A2. In another embodiment, a GCC agonist formulation of the invention is administered as part of a regimen of combination therapy with an opioid receptor antagonist or agonist. In one embodiment, the GCC agonist and the opioid receptor antagonist or agonist are linked via a covalent bond. Non-limiting examples of opioid receptor antagonists include naloxone, naltrexone, methyl nalozone, nalmefene, cypridime, beta funaltrexamine, naloxonazine, naltrindole, nor-binaltorphimine, enkephalin pentapeptide (HOE825; Tyr-D-Lys-Gly-Phe-L-homoserine), trimebutine, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, gastrin, glucagons. Non-limiting examples of opioid receptor agonists include fedotozine, asimadoline, and ketocyclazocine, the compounds described in WO03/097051 and WO05/007626, morphine, diphenyloxylate, frakefamide (H-Tyr-D-Ala-Phe(F)-Phe-NH 2; WO 01/019849 A1), and loperamide. Further non-limiting examples of analgesic agents that can be used in a regimen of combination therapy along with the GCC agonist formulations of the invention include the dipeptide Tyr-Arg (kyotorphin); the chromogranin-derived polypeptide (CgA 47-66; See, e.g., Ghia et al. 2004 Regulatory polypeptides 119:199); CCK receptor agonists such as caerulein; conotoxin polypeptides; peptide analogs of thymulin (FR Application 2830451); CCK (CCKa or CCKb) receptor antagonists, including loxiglumide and dexloxiglumide (the R-isomer of loxiglumide) (WO 88/05774); 5-HT4 agonists such as tegaserod (Zelnorm®), mosapride, metoclopramide, zacopride, cisapride, renzapride, benzimidazolone derivatives such as BIMU 1 and BIMU 8, and lirexapride; calcium channel blockers such as ziconotide and related compounds described in, for example, EP625162B1, U.S. Pat. No. 5,364,842, U.S. Pat. No. 5,587,454, U.S. Pat. No. 5,824,645, U.S. Pat. No. 5,859,186, U.S. Pat. No. 5,994,305, U.S. Pat. No. 6,087,091, U.S. Pat. No. 6,136,786, WO 93/13128 A1, EP 1336409 A1, EP 835126 A1, EP 835126 B1, U.S. Pat. No. 5,795,864, U.S. Pat. No. 5,891,849, U.S. Pat. No. 6,054,429, WO 97/01351 A1; NK-I, receptor antagonists such as aprepitant (Merck & Co Inc), vofopitant, ezlopitant (Pfizer, Inc.), R-673 (Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd), SR-48968 (Sanofi Synthelabo), CP-122,721 (Pfizer, Inc.), GW679769 (Glaxo Smith Kline), TAK-637 (Takeda/Abbot), SR-14033, and related compounds described in, for example, EP 873753 A1, US 20010006972 A1, US 20030109417 A1, WO 01/52844 A1 (for a review see Giardina et al. 2003. Drugs 6:758); NK-2 receptor antagonists such as nepadutant (Menarini Ricerche SpA), saredutant (Sanoft-Synthelabo), GW597599 (Glaxo Smith Kline), SR-144190 (Sanofi-Synthelabo) and UK-290795 (Pfizer Inc); NK3 receptor antagonists such as osanetant (SR-142801; Sanofi-Synthelabo), SSR-241586, talnetant and related compounds described in, for example, WO 02/094187 A2, EP 876347 A1, WO 97/21680 A1, U.S. Pat. No. 6,277,862, WO 98/1 1090, WO 95/28418, WO 97/19927, and Boden et al. (J Med Chem. 39:1664-75, 1996); norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (NSRI) such as milnacipran and related compounds described in WO 03/077897; and vanilloid receptor antagonists such as arvanil and related compouds described in WO 01/64212 A1. In addition to sialorphin-related polypeptides, analgesic polypeptides include: AspPhe, endomorphin-1, endomorphin-2, nocistatin, dalargin, lupron, ziconotide, and substance P. 1.3.2.9 Insulin and Insulin Modulating Agents The GCC agonist peptides described herein can be used in combination therapy with insulin and related compounds including primate, rodent, or rabbit insulin including biologically active variants thereof including allelic variants, more preferably human insulin available in recombinant form. Sources of human insulin include pharmaceutically acceptable and sterile formulations such as those available from Eli Lilly (Indianapolis, Ind. 46285) as Humulin™ (human insulin rDNA origin). See, the THE PHYSICIAN'S DESK REFERENCE, 55.sup.th Ed. (2001) Medical Economics, Thomson Healthcare (disclosing other suitable human insulins). The GCC peptides described herein can also be used in combination therapy with agents that can boost insulin effects or levels of a subject upon administration, e.g. glipizide and/or rosiglitazone. The polypeptides and agonistsdescribed herein can be used in combitherapy with SYMLIN® (pramlintide acetate) and Exenatide® (synthetic exendin-4; a 39 aa polypeptide). 1.3.2.10 Anti-Hypertensive Agents The GCC agonist peptides described herein can be used in combination therapy with an anti-hypertensive agent including but not limited to: (1) diuretics, such as thiazides, including chlorthalidone, chlorthiazide, dichlorophenamide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, polythiazide, and hydrochlorothiazide; loop diuretics, such as bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, and torsemide; potassium sparing agents, such as amiloride, and triamterene; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, osmotics(such as glycerin) and aldosterone antagonists, such as spironolactone, epirenone, and the like; (2) beta-adrenergic blockers such as acebutolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bevantolol, bisoprolol, bopindolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, indenolol, metaprolol, nadolol, nebivolol, penbutolol, pindolol, propanolol, sotalol, tertatolol, tilisolol, and timolol, and the like; (3) calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine, aranidipine, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine, bepridil, cinaldipine, clevidipine, diltiazem, efonidipine, felodipine, gallopamil, isradipine, lacidipine, lemildipine, lercanidipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nilvadipine, nimodepine, nisoldipine, nitrendipine, manidipine, pranidipine, and verapamil, and the like; (4) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril; captopril; ceranapril; cilazapril; delapril; enalapril; enalopril; fosinopril; imidapril; lisinopril; losinopril; moexipril; quinapril; quinaprilat; ramipril; perindopril; perindropril; quanipril; spirapril; tenocapril; trandolapril, and zofenopril, and the like; (5) neutral endopeptidase inhibitors such as omapatrilat, cadoxatril and ecadotril, fosidotril, sampatrilat, AVE7688, ER4030, and the like; (6) endothelin antagonists such as tezosentan, A308165, and YM62899, and the like; (7) vasodilators such as hydralazine, clonidine, minoxidil, and nicotinyl alcohol, and the like; (8) angiotensin II receptor antagonists such as aprosartan, candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, pratosartan, tasosartan, telmisartan, valsartan, and EXP-3137, FI6828K, and RNH6270, and the like; (9) α/β adrenergic blockers such as nipradilol, arotinolol and amosulalol, and the like; (10) alpha 1 blockers, such as terazosin, urapidil, prazosin, tamsulosin, bunazosin, trimazosin, doxazosin, naftopidil, indoramin, WHP 164, and XENOIO, and the like; (11) alpha 2 agonists such as lofexidine, tiamenidine, moxonidine, rilmenidine and guanobenz, and the like; (12) aldosterone inhibitors, and the like; and (13) angiopoietin-2-binding agents such as those disclosed in WO03/030833. Specific anti-hypertensive agents that can be used in combination with polypeptides and agonists described herein include, but are not limited to: diuretics, such as thiazides (e.g., chlorthalidone, cyclothiazide (CAS RN 2259-96-3), chlorothiazide (CAS RN 72956-09-3, which may be prepared as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,809,194), dichlorophenamide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, polythiazide, bendroflumethazide, methyclothazide, polythiazide, trichlormethazide, chlorthalidone, indapamide, metolazone, quinethazone, althiazide (CAS RN 5588-16-9, which may be prepared as disclosed in British Patent No. 902,658), benzthiazide (CAS RN 91-33-8, which may be prepared as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,108,097), buthiazide (which may be prepared as disclosed in British Patent Nos. 861,367), and hydrochlorothiazide), loop diuretics (e.g. bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, and torasemide), potassium sparing agents (e.g. amiloride, and triamterene (CAS Number 396-01-0)), and aldosterone antagonists (e.g. spironolactone (CAS Number 52-01-7), epirenone, and the like); β-adrenergic blockers such as Amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), bunolol hydrochloride (CAS RN 31969-05-8, Parke-Davis), acebutolol (±N-[3-Acetyl-4-[2-hydroxy-3-[(1 methylethyl)amino]propoxy]phenyl]-butanamide, or (±)-3′-Acetyl-4′-[2-hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino) propoxy]butyranilide), acebutolol hydrochloride (e.g. Sectral®, Wyeth-Ayerst), alprenolol hydrochloride (CAS RN 13707-88-5 see Netherlands Patent Application No. 6,605,692), atenolol (e.g. Tenormin®, AstraZeneca), carteolol hydrochloride (e.g. Cartrol® Filmtab®, Abbott), Celiprolol hydrochloride (CAS RN 57470-78-7, also see in U.S. Pat. No. 4,034,009), cetamolol hydrochloride (CAS RN 77590-95-5, see also U.S. Pat. No. 4,059,622), labetalol hydrochloride (e.g. Normodyne®, Schering), esmolol hydrochloride (e.g. Brevibloc®, Baxter), levobetaxolol hydrochloride (e.g. Betaxon™ Ophthalmic Suspension, Alcon), levobunolol hydrochloride (e.g. Betagan® Liquifilm® with C CAP® Compliance Cap, Allergan), nadolol (e.g. Nadolol, Mylan), practolol (CAS RN 6673-35-4, see also U.S. Pat. No. 3,408,387), propranolol hydrochloride (CAS RN 318-98-9), sotalol hydrochloride (e.g. Betapace AF™, Berlex), timolol (2-Propanol,1-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]-3-[[4-4(4-morpholinyl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl]oxy]-, hemihydrate, (S)—, CAS RN 91524-16-2), timolol maleate (S)—I-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-3-[[4-(4-morpholinyl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl]oxy]-2-propanol (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) salt, CAS RN 26921-17-5), bisoprolol (2-Propanol, 1-[4-[[2-(1-methylethoxyl)ethoxy]-methyl]phenoxyl]-3-[(1-meth-ylethyl)amino]-, (±), CAS RN 66722-44-9), bisoprolol fumarate (such as (±)-1-[4-[[2-(1-Methylethoxyl)ethoxy]methyl]phenoxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-propanol (E)-2-butenedioate (2:1) (salt), e.g., Zebeta™, Lederle Consumer), nebivalol (2H-1-Benzopyran-2-methanol, αα′-[iminobis(methylene)]bis[6-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-, CAS RN 99200-09-6 see also U.S. Pat. No. 4,654,362), cicloprolol hydrochloride, such 2-Propanol, 1-[4-[2-(cyclopropylmethoxy)ethoxy]phenoxy]-3-[1-methylethyl)amino]-, hydrochloride, A.A.S. RN 63686-79-3), dexpropranolol hydrochloride (2-Propanol,1-[1-methylethy)-amino]-3-(1-naphthalenyloxy)-hydrochloride (CAS RN 13071-11-9), diacetolol hydrochloride (Acetamide, N-[3-acetyl-4-[2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methyl-ethyl)amino]propoxy] [phenyl]-, monohydrochloride CAS RN 69796-04-9), dilevalol hydrochloride (Benzamide, 2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]-, monohydrochloride, CAS RN 75659-08-4), exaprolol hydrochloride (2-Propanol, 1-(2-cyclohexylphenoxy)-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-, hydrochloride CAS RN 59333-90-3), flestolol sulfate (Benzoic acid, 2-fluro-,3-[[2-[aminocarbonyl)amino]-dimethylethyl]amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ester, (+)-sulfate (1:1) (salt), CAS RN 88844-73-9; metalol hydrochloride (Methanesulfonamide, N-[4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)propyl]phenyl]-, monohydrochloride CAS RN 7701-65-7), metoprolol 2-Propanol, 1-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]-3-[1-methylethyl)amino]-; CAS RN 37350-58-6), metoprolol tartrate (such as 2-Propanol,1-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-, e.g., Lopressor®, Novartis), pamatolol sulfate (Carbamic acid, [2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxyl]phenyl]-ethyl]-, methyl ester, (±) sulfate (salt) (2:1), CAS RN 59954-01-7), penbutolol sulfate (2-Propanol, 1-(2-cyclopentylphenoxy)-3-[1,1-dimethyle-thyl)amino] 1, (S)—, sulfate (2:1) (salt), CAS RN 38363-32-5), practolol (Acetamide, N-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-propoxy]phenyl]-, CAS RN 6673-35-4) tiprenolol hydrochloride (Propanol,1-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-3-[2-(methylthio)-phenoxy]-, hydrochloride, (±), CAS RN 39832-43-4), tolamolol (Benzamide, 4-[2-[[2-hydroxy-3-(2-methylphenoxy)-propyl]amino]ethoxyl]-, CAS RN 38103-61-6), bopindolol, indenolol, pindolol, propanolol, tertatolol, and tilisolol, and the like; calcium channel blockers such as besylate salt of amlodipine (such as 3-ethyl-5-methyl-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate benzenesulphonate, e.g., Norvasc®, Pfizer), clentiazem maleate (1,5-Benzothiazepin-4(5H)-one, 3-(acetyloxy)-8-chloro-5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-(2S-cis)-, (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1), see also U.S. Pat. No. 4,567,195), isradipine (3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 4-(4-benzofurazanyl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-, methyl 1-methylethyl ester, (±)-4(4-benzofurazanyl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate, see also U.S. Pat. No. 4,466,972); nimodipine (such as is isopropyl (2-methoxyethyl) 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylate, e.g. Nimotop®, Bayer), felodipine (such as ethyl methyl 4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate-, e.g. Plendil® Extended-Release, AstraZeneca LP), nilvadipine (3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 2-cyano-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-,3-methyl 5-(1-methylethyl) ester, also see U.S. Pat. No. 3,799,934), nifedipine (such as 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid,1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-, dimethyl ester, e.g., Procardia XL® Extended Release Tablets, Pfizer), diltiazem hydrochloride (such as 1,5-Benzothiazepin-4(5H)-one,3-(acetyloxy)-5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,-3-dihydro-2(4-methoxyphenyl)-, monohydrochloride, (+)-cis., e.g., Tiazac®, Forest), verapamil hydrochloride (such as benzeneacetronitrile, (alpha)-[[3-[[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]methylamino]propyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-(alpha)-(1-methylethyl) hydrochloride, e.g., Isoptin® SR, Knoll Labs), teludipine hydrochloride (3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]4-[2-[(1E)-3-(1,1-dimethylethoxy)-3-oxo-1-propenyl]phenyl]-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-, diethyl ester, monohydrochloride) CAS RN 108700-03-4), belfosdil (Phosphonic acid, [2-(2-phenoxy ethyl)-1,3-propane-diyl]bis-, tetrabutyl ester CAS RN 103486-79-9), fostedil (Phosphonic acid, [[4-(2-benzothiazolyl)phenyl]methyl]-, diethyl ester CAS RN 75889-62-2), aranidipine, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine, bepridil, cinaldipine, clevidipine, efonidipine, gallopamil, lacidipine, lemildipine, lercanidipine, monatepil maleate (1-Piperazinebutanamide, N-(6,11-dihydrodibenzo(b,e)thiepin-11-yl)4-(4-fluorophenyl)-, (+)-, (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) (±)-N-(6,11-Dihydrodibenzo(b,e)thiep-in-11-yl)-4-(p-fluorophenyl)-1-piperazinebutyramide maleate (1:1) CAS RN 132046-06-1), nicardipine, nisoldipine, nitrendipine, manidipine, pranidipine, and the like; T-channel calcium antagonists such as mibefradil; angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril, benazepril hydrochloride (such as 3-[[1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenyl-(1 S)-propyl]amino]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1H-1-(3 S)-benzazepine-1-acetic acid monohydrochloride, e.g., Lotrel®, Novartis), captopril (such as 1-[(2S)-3-mercapto-2-methylpropionyl]-L-proline, e.g., Captopril, Mylan, CAS RN 62571-86-2 and others disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,046,889), ceranapril (and others disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,452,790), cetapril (alacepril, Dainippon disclosed in Eur. Therap. Res. 39:671 (1986); 40:543 (1986)), cilazapril (Hoffman-LaRoche) disclosed in J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 9:39 (1987), indalapril (delapril hydrochloride (2H-1,2,4-Benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide, 3-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-yl-6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-, 1,1-dioxide CAS RN 2259-96-3); disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,385,051), enalapril (and others disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,374,829), enalopril, enaloprilat, fosinopril, ((such as L-proline, 4-cyclohexyl-1-[[[2-methyl-1-(1-oxopropoxyl) propoxy](4-phenylbutyl) phosphinyl]acetyl]-, sodium salt, e.g., Monopril, Bristol-Myers Squibb and others disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,168,267), fosinopril sodium (L-Proline, 4-cyclohexyl-1-[[(R)-[(1S)-2-methyl-1-(1-ox-opropoxy)propox), imidapril, indolapril (Schering, disclosed in J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 5:643, 655 (1983)), lisinopril (Merck), losinopril, moexipril, moexipril hydrochloride (3-Isoquinolinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(2S)-2-[[(1S)— 1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl]amino]-1-oxopropyl]-1,-2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-, monohydrochloride, (3S)-CAS RN 82586-52-5), quinapril, quinaprilat, ramipril (Hoechsst) disclosed in EP 79022 and Curr. Ther. Res. 40:74 (1986), perindopril erbumine (such as 2S,3aS,7aS-1-[(S)—N—[(S)-1-Carboxybutyljalanyljhexahydro^-indolinecarboxylic acid, 1-ethyl ester, compound with tert-butylamine (1:1), e.g., Aceon®, Solvay), perindopril (Servier, disclosed in Eur. J. din. Pharmacol. 31:519 (1987)), quanipril (disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,344,949), spirapril (Schering, disclosed in Acta. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 59 (Supp. 5): 173 (1986)), tenocapril, trandolapril, zofenopril (and others disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,316,906), rentiapril (fentiapril, disclosed in Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 10:131 (1983)), pivopril, YS980, teprotide (Bradykinin potentiator BPP9a CAS RN 35115-60-7), BRL 36,378 (Smith Kline Beecham, see EP80822 and EP60668), MC-838 (Chugai, see CA. 102:72588v and Jap. J. Pharmacol. 40:373 (1986), CGS 14824 (Ciba-Geigy, 3-([1-ethoxycarbonyl-3-phenyl-(1S)-propyl]amino)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-ox-o-1-(3S)-benzazepine-1 acetic acid HCl, see U.K. Patent No. 2103614), CGS 16,617 (Ciba-Geigy, 3(S)-[[(1S)-5-amino-1-carboxypentyl]amino]-2,3,4,-5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1H-1-benzazepine-1-ethanoic acid, see U.S. Pat. No. 4,473,575), Ru 44570 (Hoechst, see Arzneimittelforschung 34:1254 (1985)), R 31-2201 (Hoffman-LaRoche see FEBS Lett. 165:201 (1984)), CI925 (Pharmacologist 26:243, 266 (1984)), WY-44221 (Wyeth, see J. Med. Chem. 26:394 (1983)), and those disclosed in US2003006922 (paragraph 28), U.S. Pat. No. 4,337,201, U.S. Pat. No. 4,432,971 (phosphonamidates); neutral endopeptidase inhibitors such as omapatrilat (Vanlev®), CGS 30440, cadoxatril and ecadotril, fasidotril (also known as aladotril or alatriopril), sampatrilat, mixanpril, and gemopatrilat, AVE7688, ER4030, and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,362,727, U.S. Pat. No. 5,366,973, U.S. Pat. No. 5,225,401, U.S. Pat. No. 4,722,810, U.S. Pat. No. 5,223,516, U.S. Pat. No. 4,749,688, U.S. Pat. No. 5,552,397, U.S. Pat. No. 5,504,080, U.S. Pat. No. 5,612,359, U.S. Pat. No. 5,525,723, EP0599444, EP0481522, EP0599444, EP0595610, EP0534363, EP534396, EP534492, EP0629627; endothelin antagonists such as tezosentan, A308165, and YM62899, and the like; vasodilators such as hydralazine (apresoline), clonidine (clonidine hydrochloride (1H-Imidazol-2-amine, N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)4,5-dihydro-, monohydrochloride CAS RN 4205-91-8), catapres, minoxidil (loniten), nicotinyl alcohol (roniacol), diltiazem hydrochloride (such as 1,5-Benzothiazepin-4(5H)-one,3-(acetyloxy)-5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,-3-dihydro-2(4-methoxyphenyl)-, monohydrochloride, (+)-cis, e.g., Tiazac®, Forest), isosorbide dinitrate (such as 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-glucitol 2,5-dinitrate e.g., Isordil® Titradose®, Wyeth-Ayerst), sosorbide mononitrate (such as 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-glucito-1,5-nitrate, an organic nitrate, e.g., Ismo®, Wyeth-Ayerst), nitroglycerin (such as 2,3 propanetriol trinitrate, e.g., Nitrostat® Parke-Davis), verapamil hydrochloride (such as benzeneacetonitrile, (±)-(alpha)[3-[[2-(3,4 dimethoxypheny 1)ethyl]methylamino]propyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-(alpha)-(1-methylethyl) hydrochloride, e.g., Covera HS® Extended-Release, Searle), chromonar (which may be prepared as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,282,938), clonitate (Annalen 1870 155), droprenilamine (which may be prepared as disclosed in DE2521113), lidoflazine (which may be prepared as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,267,104); prenylamine (which may be prepared as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,152,173), propatyl nitrate (which may be prepared as disclosed in French Patent No. 1,103,113), mioflazine hydrochloride (1-Piperazineacetamide, 3-(aminocarbonyl)4-[4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]-N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-, dihydrochloride CAS RN 83898-67-3), mixidine (Benzeneethanamine, 3,4-dimethoxy-N-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinylidene)-Pyrrolidine, 2-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)imino]-1-methyl-1-Methyl-2-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)imino]pyrrolidine CAS RN 27737-38-8), molsidomine (1,2,3-Oxadiazolium, 5-[(ethoxycarbonyl)amino]-3-(4-morpholinyl)-, inner salt CAS RN 25717-80-0), isosorbide mononitrate (D-Glucitol, 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-, 5-nitrate CAS RN 16051-77-7), erythrityl tetranitrate (1,2,3,4-Butanetetrol, tetranitrate, (2R,3S)-rel-CAS RN 7297-25-8), clonitrate(1,2-Propanediol, 3-chloro-, dinitrate (7CI, 8CI, 9CI) CAS RN 2612-33-1), dipyridamole Ethanol, 2,2′,2″,2′″-[(4,8-di-1-piperidinylpyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine-2,6-diyl)dinitrilo]tetrakis-CAS RN 58-32-2), nicorandil (CAS RN 65141-46-0 3-), pyridinecarboxamide (N-[2-(nitrooxy)ethyl]-Nisoldipine3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-, methyl 2-methylpropyl ester CAS RN 63675-72-9), nifedipine3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-, dimethyl ester CAS RN 21829-25-4), perhexiline maleate (Piperidine, 2-(2,2-dicyclohexylethyl)-, (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) CAS RN 6724-53-4), oxprenolol hydrochloride (2-Propanol, 1-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-3-[2-(2-propenyloxyl)phenoxy]-, hydrochloride CAS RN 6452-73-9), pentrinitrol (1,3-Propanediol, 2,2-bis[(nitrooxy)methyl]-, mononitrate (ester) CAS RN 1607-17-6), verapamil (Benzeneacetonitrile, α-[3-[[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-methylamino]propyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-α-(1-methylethyl)-CAS RN 52-53-9) and the like; angiotensin II receptor antagonists such as, aprosartan, zolasartan, olmesartan, pratosartan, FI6828K, RNH6270, candesartan (1H-Benzimidazole-7-carboxylic acid, 2-ethoxy-1-[[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)[1,1′-biphenyl]4-yl]methyl]-CAS RN 139481-59-7), candesartan cilexetil ((+/−)-1-(cyclohexylcarbonyloxy)ethyl-2-ethoxy-1-[[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]-1H-benzimidazole carboxylate, CAS RN 145040-37-5, U.S. Pat. No. 5,703,110 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,196,444), eprosartan (3-[1-4-carboxyphenylmethyl)-2-n-butyl-imidazol-5-yl]-(2-thienylmethyl) propenoic acid, U.S. Pat. No. 5,185,351 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,650,650), irbesartan (2-n-butyl-3-[[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl] 1,3-diazazspiro[4,4]non-1-en-4-one, U.S. Pat. No. 5,270,317 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,352,788), losartan (2-N-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)-methyl]imidazole, potassium salt, U.S. Pat. No. 5,138,069, U.S. Pat. No. 5,153,197 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,128,355), tasosartan (5,8-dihydro-2,4-dimethyl-8-[(2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)[1,r-biphenyl]4-yl)methyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one, U.S. Pat. No. 5,149,699), telmisartan (4′-[(1,4-dimethyl-2′-propyl-(2,6′-bi-1H-benzimidazol)-r-yl)]-[1, 1′-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid, CAS RN 144701-48-4, U.S. Pat. No. 5,591,762), milfasartan, abitesartan, valsartan (Diovan® (Novartis), (S)—N-valeryl-N-[[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]valine, U.S. Pat. No. 5,399,578), EXP-3137 (2-N-butyl-4-chloro-1-[(2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)-methyl]imidazole-5-carboxylic acid, U.S. Pat. No. 5,138,069, U.S. Pat. No. 5,153,197 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,128,355), 3-(2′-(tetrazol-5-yl)-1,r-biphen-4-yl)methyl-5,7-dimethyl-2-ethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 4′[2-ethyl-4-methyl-6-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-2-yl]-benzimidazol-1-yl]-methyl]-1,r-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid, 2-butyl-6-(1-methoxy-1-methylethyl)-2-[2′-)IH-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-ylmethyl] guinazolin-4(3H)-one, 3-[2′-carboxybiphenyl-4-yl)methyl]-2-cyclopropyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, 2-butyl-4-chloro-1-[(2′-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazole-carboxylic acid, 2-butyl-4-chloro-1-[[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) [1, 1′-biphenyl]-4-yl]methyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid-1-(ethoxycarbonyl-oxy)ethyl ester potassium salt, dipotassium 2-butyl-4-(methylthio)-1-[[2-[[[(propylamino)carbonyl]amino]-sulfonyl](1,1′-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate, methyl-2-[[4-butyl-2-methyl-6-oxo-5-[[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl]methyl]-1-(6H)-pyrimidinyl]methyl]-3-thiophencarboxylate, 5-[(3,5-dibutyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]-2-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylphenyl)]pyridine, 6-butyl-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5 [[2′-(I H-tetrazol-5-yl)[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-methyl]pyrimidin-4-(3H)-one D,L lysine salt, 5-methyl-7-n-propyl-8-[[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-[1,2,4]-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-2(3H)-one, 2,7-diethyl-5-[[2′-(5-tetrazoly)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-5H-pyrazolo[1,5-b][1,2,4]triazole potassium salt, 2-[2-butyl-4,5-dihydro-4-oxo-3-[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4-biphenylmethyl]-3H-imidazol[4,5-c]pyridine-5-ylmethyl]benzoic acid, ethyl ester, potassium salt, 3-methoxy-2,6-dimethyl-4-[[2′(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4-yl]methoxy]pyridine, 2-ethoxy-1-[[2′-(5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-1H-benzimidazole-7-carboxylic acid, 1-[N-(2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl-methyl)-N-valerolylaminomethyl)cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid, 7-methyl-2n-propyl-3-[[2′ 1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-6]pyridine, 2-[5-[(2-ethyl-5,7-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-3-yl)methyl]-2-quinolinyl]sodium benzoate, 2-butyl-6-chloro-4-hydroxymethyl-5-methyl-3-[[2′-(I H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]pyridine, 2-[[[2-butyl-1-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methyl]-1H-imidazol-5-yl]methyl]amino]benzoic acid tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]pyrimidin-6-one, 4(S)-[4-(carboxymethyl)phenoxy]-N-[2(R)-[4-(2-sulfobenzamido)imidazol-1-yl]octanoyl]-L-proline, 1-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4-butyl-1,3-dihydro-3-[[6-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl]-3-pyridinyl]methyl]-2H-imidazol-2-one, 5,8-ethano-5,8-dimethyl-2-n-propyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1-[[2′(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-1H,4H-1,3,4a,8α-tetrazacyclopentanaphthalene-9-one, 4-[1-[2′-(1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl)biphen-4-yl)methylamino]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-trifylquinazoline, 2-(2-chlorobenzoyl)imino-5-ethyl-3-[2′-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazoline, 2-[5-ethyl-3-[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl-1,3,4-thiazoline-2-ylidene]aminocarbonyl-1-cyclopentencarboxylic acid dipotassium salt, and 2-butyl-4-[N-methyl-N-(3-methylcrotonoyl)amino]-1-[[2′-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-1H-imidzole-5-carboxylic acid 1-ethoxycarbonyloxyethyl ester, those disclosed in patent publications EP475206, EP497150, EP539086, EP539713, EP535463, EP535465, EP542059, EP497121, EP535420, EP407342, EP415886, EP424317, EP435827, EP433983, EP475898, EP490820, EP528762, EP324377, EP323841, EP420237, EP500297, EP426021, EP480204, EP429257, EP430709, EP434249, EP446062, EP505954, EP524217, EP514197, EP514198, EP514193, EP514192, EP450566, EP468372, EP485929, EP503162, EP533058, EP467207 EP399731, EP399732, EP412848, EP453210, EP456442, EP470794, EP470795, EP495626, EP495627, EP499414, EP499416, EP499415, EP511791, EP516392, EP520723, EP520724, EP539066, EP438869, EP505893, EP530702, EP400835, EP400974, EP401030, EP407102, EP411766, EP409332, EP412594, EP419048, EP480659, EP481614, EP490587, EP467715, EP479479, EP502725, EP503838, EP505098, EP505111 EP513,979 EP507594, EP510812, EP511767, EP512675, EP512676, EP512870, EP517357, EP537937, EP534706, EP527534, EP540356, EP461040, EP540039, EP465368, EP498723, EP498722, EP498721, EP515265, EP503785, EP501892, EP519831, EP532410, EP498361, EP432737, EP504888, EP508393, EP508445, EP403159, EP403158, EP425211, EP427463, EP437103, EP481448, EP488532, EP501269, EP500409, EP540400, EP005528, EP028834, EP028833, EP411507, EP425921, EP430300, EP434038, EP442473, EP443568, EP445811, EP459136, EP483683, EP518033, EP520423, EP531876, EP531874, EP392317, EP468470, EP470543, EP502314, EP529253, EP543263, EP540209, EP449699, EP465323, EP521768, EP415594, WO92/14468, WO93/08171, WO93/08169, WO91/00277, WO91/00281, WO91/14367, WO92/00067, WO92/00977, WO92/20342, WO93/04045, WO93/04046, WO91/15206, WO92/14714, WO92/09600, WO92/16552, WO93/05025, WO93/03018, WO91/07404, WO92/02508, WO92/13853, WO91/19697, WO91/11909, WO91/12001, WO91/11999, WO91/15209, WO91/15479, WO92/20687, WO92/20662, WO92/20661, WO93/01177, WO91/14679, WO91/13063, WO92/13564, WO91/17148, WO91/18888, WO91/19715, WO92/02257, WO92/04335, WO92/05161, WO92/07852, WO92/15577, WO93/03033, WO91/16313, WO92/00068, WO92/02510, WO92/09278, WO92/0179, WO92/10180, WO92/10186, WO92/10181, WO92/10097, WO92/10183, WO92/10182, WO92/10187, WO92/10184, WO92/10188, WO92/10180, WO92/10185, WO92/20651, WO93/03722, WO93/06828, WO93/03040, WO92/19211, WO92/22533, WO92/06081, WO92/05784, WO93/00341, WO92/04343, WO92/04059, U.S. Pat. No. 5,104,877, U.S. Pat. No. 5,187,168, U.S. Pat. No. 5,149,699, U.S. Pat. No. 5,185,340, U.S. Pat. No. 4,880,804, U.S. Pat. No. 5,138,069, U.S. Pat. No. 4,916,129, U.S. Pat. No. 5,153,197, U.S. Pat. No. 5,173,494, U.S. Pat. No. 5,137,906, U.S. Pat. No. 5,155,126, U.S. Pat. No. 5,140,037, U.S. Pat. No. 5,137,902, U.S. Pat. No. 5,157,026, U.S. Pat. No. 5,053,329, U.S. Pat. No. 5,132,216, U.S. Pat. No. 5,057,522, U.S. Pat. No. 5,066,586, U.S. Pat. No. 5,089,626, U.S. Pat. No. 5,049,565, U.S. Pat. No. 5,087,702, U.S. Pat. No. 5,124,335, U.S. Pat. No. 5,102,880, U.S. Pat. No. 5,128,327, U.S. Pat. No. 5,151,435, U.S. Pat. No. 5,202,322, U.S. Pat. No. 5,187,159, U.S. Pat. No. 5,198,438, U.S. Pat. No. 5,182,288, U.S. Pat. No. 5,036,048, U.S. Pat. No. 5,140,036, U.S. Pat. No. 5,087,634, U.S. Pat. No. 5,196,537, U.S. Pat. No. 5,153,347, U.S. Pat. No. 5,191,086, U.S. Pat. No. 5,190,942, U.S. Pat. No. 5,177,097, U.S. Pat. No. 5,212,177, U.S. Pat. No. 5,208,234, U.S. Pat. No. 5,208,235, U.S. Pat. No. 5,212,195, U.S. Pat. No. 5,130,439, U.S. Pat. No. 5,045,540, U.S. Pat. No. 5,041,152, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,210,204, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; α/β adrenergic blockers such as nipradilol, arotinolol, amosulalol, bretylium tosylate (CAS RN: 61-75-6), dihydroergtamine mesylate (such as ergotaman-3′,6′,18-trione,9,-10-dihydro-12′-hydroxy-2′-methyl-5′-(phenylmethyl)-, (5′(α))-, monomethanesulfonate, e.g., DHE 45® Injection, Novartis), carvedilol (such as (±)-1-(Carbazol-4-yloxy)-3-[[2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl]amino]-2-propanol, e.g., Coreg®, SmithKline Beecham), labetalol (such as 5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyljsalicylamide monohydrochloride, e.g., Normodyne®, Schering), bretylium tosylate (Benzenemethanaminium, 2-bromo-N-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl-, salt with 4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid (1:1) CAS RN 61-75-6), phentolamine mesylate (Phenol, 3-[[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl](4-methylphenyl)amino]-, monomethanesulfonate (salt) CAS RN 65-28-1), solypertine tartrate (5H-1,3-Dioxolo[4,5-f]indole, 7-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-, (2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioate (1:1) CAS RN 5591-43-5), zolertine hydrochloride (Piperazine,1-phenyl4-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethyl]-, monohydrochloride (8C1,9C1) CAS RN 7241-94-3) and the like; a adrenergic receptor blockers, such as alfuzosin (CAS RN: 81403-68-1), terazosin, urapidil, prazosin (Minipress®), tamsulosin, bunazosin, trimazosin, doxazosin, naftopidil, indoramin, WHP 164, XENOIO, fenspiride hydrochloride (which may be prepared as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,399,192), proroxan (CAS RN 33743-96-3), and labetalol hydrochloride and combinations thereof; a 2 agonists such as methyldopa, methyldopa HCL, lofexidine, tiamenidine, moxonidine, rilmenidine, guanobenz, and the like; aldosterone inhibitors, and the like; renin inhibitors including Aliskiren (SPP100; Novartis/Speedel); angiopoietin-2-binding agents such as those disclosed in WO03/030833; anti-angina agents such as ranolazine (hydrochloride 1-Piperazineacetamide, N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4-[2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxyl)propyl]-, dihydrochloride CAS RN 95635-56-6), betaxolol hydrochloride (2-Propanol, l-[4-[2 (cyclopropylmethoxy)ethyl]phenoxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-, hydrochloride CAS RN 63659-19-8), butoprozine hydrochloride (Methanone, [4-[3(dibutylamino)propoxy]phenyl](2-ethyl-3-indolizinyl)-, monohydrochloride CAS RN 62134-34-3), cinepazet maleatel-Piperazineacetic acid, 4-[1-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]-, ethyl ester, (2Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) CAS RN 50679-07-7), tosifen (Benzenesulfonamide, 4-methyl-N-[[[(1S)-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl]amino]carbonyl]-CAS RN 32295-184), verapamilhydrochloride (Benzeneacetonitrile, α-[3-[[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]methylamino]propyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-α-(1-methylethyl)-, monohydrochloride CAS RN 152-114), molsidomine (1,2,3-Oxadiazolium, 5-[(ethoxycarbonyl)amino]-3-(4-morpholinyl)-, inner salt CAS RN 25717-80-0), and ranolazine hydrochloride (1-Piperazineacetamide, N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)4-[2-hydroxy-3-(2-meth-oxyphenoxy)propyl]-, dihydrochloride CAS RN 95635-56-6); tosifen (Benzenesulfonamide, 4-methyl-N-[[[(1S)-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl]amino]carbonyl]-CAS RN 32295-184); adrenergic stimulants such as guanfacine hydrochloride (such as N-amidino-2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl) acetamide hydrochloride, e.g., Tenex® Tablets available from Robins); methyldopa-hydrochlorothiazide (such as levo-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methylalanine) combined with Hydrochlorothiazide (such as 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide, e.g., the combination as, e.g., Aldoril® Tablets available from Merck), methyldopa-chlorothiazide (such as 6-chloro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide and methyldopa as described above, e.g., Aldoclor®, Merck), clonidine hydrochloride (such as 2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride and chlorthalidone (such as 2-chloro-5-(1-hydroxy-3-oxo-1-isoindolinyl) benzenesulfonamide), e.g., Combipres®, Boehringer Ingelheim), clonidine hydrochloride (such as 2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride, e.g., Catapres®, Boehringer Ingelheim), clonidine (1H-Imidazol-2-amine, N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)4,5-dihydro-CAS RN 4205-90-7), Hyzaar (Merck; a combination of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide), Co-Diovan (Novartis; a combination of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, Lotrel (Novartis; a combination of benazepril and amlodipine) and Caduet (Pfizer; a combination of amlodipine and atorvastatin), and those agents disclosed in US20030069221. 1.3.2.11 Agents for the Treatment of Respiratory Disorders The GCC agonist peptides described herein can be used in combination therapy with one or more of the following agents useful in the treatment of respiratory and other disorders including but not limited to: (1) β-agonists including but not limited to: albuterol (PRO VENTIL®, S ALBUT AMOI®, VENTOLIN®), bambuterol, bitoterol, clenbuterol, fenoterol, formoterol, isoetharine (BRONKOSOL®, BRONKOMETER®), metaproterenol (ALUPENT®, METAPREL®), pirbuterol (MAXAIR®), reproterol, rimiterol, salmeterol, terbutaline (BRETHAIRE®, BRETHINE®, BRICANYL®), adrenalin, isoproterenol (ISUPREL®), epinephrine bitartrate (PRIMATENE®), ephedrine, orciprenline, fenoterol and isoetharine; (2) steroids, including but not limited to beclomethasone, beclomethasone dipropionate, betamethasone, budesonide, bunedoside, butixocort, dexamethasone, flunisolide, fluocortin, fluticasone, hydrocortisone, methyl prednisone, mometasone, predonisolone, predonisone, tipredane, tixocortal, triamcinolone, and triamcinolone acetonide; (3)β2-agonist-corticosteroid combinations [e.g., salmeterol-fluticasone (AD V AIR®), formoterol-budesonid (S YMBICORT®)]; (4) leukotriene D4 receptor antagonists/leukotriene antagonists/LTD4 antagonists (i.e., any compound that is capable of blocking, inhibiting, reducing or otherwise interrupting the interaction between leukotrienes and the Cys LTI receptor) including but not limited to: zafhiukast, montelukast, montelukast sodium (SINGULAIR®), pranlukast, iralukast, pobilukast, SKB-106,203 and compounds described as having LTD4 antagonizing activity described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,565,473; (5) 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors and/or leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors [e.g., zileuton and BAY1005 (CA registry 128253-31-6)]; (6) histamine Hl receptor antagonists/antihistamines (i.e., any compound that is capable of blocking, inhibiting, reducing or otherwise interrupting the interaction between histamine and its receptor) including but not limited to: astemizole, acrivastine, antazoline, azatadine, azelastine, astamizole, bromopheniramine, bromopheniramine maleate, carbinoxamine, carebastine, cetirizine, chlorpheniramine, chloropheniramine maleate, cimetidine clemastine, cyclizine, cyproheptadine, descarboethoxyloratadine, dexchlorpheniramine, dimethindene, diphenhydramine, diphenylpyraline, doxylamine succinate, doxylamine, ebastine, efletirizine, epinastine, famotidine, fexofenadine, hydroxyzine, hydroxyzine, ketotifen, levocabastine, levocetirizine, levocetirizine, loratadine, meclizine, mepyramine, mequitazine, methdilazine, mianserin, mizolastine, noberastine, norasternizole, noraztemizole, phenindamine, pheniramine, picumast, promethazine, pynlamine, pyrilamine, ranitidine, temelastine, terfenadine, trimeprazine, tripelenamine, and triprolidine; (7) an anticholinergic including but not limited to: atropine, benztropine, biperiden, flutropium, hyoscyamine (e.g. Levsin®; Levbid®; Levsin/SL®, Anaspaz®, Levsinex Timecaps®, NuLev®), ilutropium, ipratropium, ipratropium bromide, methscopolamine, oxybutinin, rispenzepine, scopolamine, and tiotropium; (8) an anti-tussive including but not limited to: dextromethorphan, codeine, and hydromorphone; (9) a decongestant including but not limited to: pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine; (10) an expectorant including but not limited to: guafenesin, guaicolsulfate, terpin, ammonium chloride, glycerol guaicolate, and iodinated glycerol; (11) a bronchodilator including but not limited to: theophylline and aminophylline; (12) an anti-inflammatory including but not limited to: fluribiprofen, diclophenac, indomethacin, ketoprofen, S-ketroprophen, tenoxicam; (13) a PDE (phosphodiesterase) inhibitor including but not limited to those disclosed herein; (14) a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody [e.g. xolair (also called omalizumab), rhuMab, and talizumab]; (15) a humanized lung surfactant including recombinant forms of surfactant proteins SP-B, SP—C or SP-D [e.g. SURFAXIN®, formerly known as dsc-104 (Discovery Laboratories)], (16) agents that inhibit epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) such as amiloride and related compounds; (17) antimicrobial agents used to treat pulmonary infections such as acyclovir, amikacin, amoxicillin, doxycycline, trimethoprin sulfamethoxazole, amphotericin B, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, cephalosporins(ceffoxitin, cefmetazole etc), ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, gentimycin, ganciclovir, imipenem, isoniazid, itraconazole, penicillin, ribavirin, rifampin, rifabutin, amantadine, rimantidine, streptomycin, tobramycin, and vancomycin; (18) agents that activate chloride secretion through Ca++ dependent chloride channels (such as purinergic receptor (P2Y(2) agonists); (19) agents that decrease sputum viscosity, such as human recombinant DNase 1, (Pulmozyme®); (20) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (acemetacin, acetaminophen, acetyl salicylic acid, alclofenac, alminoprofen, apazone, aspirin, benoxaprofen, bezpiperylon, bucloxic acid, carprofen, clidanac, diclofenac, diclofenac, diflunisal, diflusinal, etodolac, fenbufen, fenbufen, fenclofenac, fenclozic acid, fenoprofen, fentiazac, feprazone, flufenamic acid, flufenisal, flufenisal, fluprofen, flurbiprofen, flurbiprofen, furofenac, ibufenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, indomethacin, indoprofen, isoxepac, isoxicam, ketoprofen, ketoprofen, ketorolac, meclofenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, mefenamic acid, miroprofen, mofebutazone, nabumetone oxaprozin, naproxen, naproxen, niflumic acid, oxaprozin, oxpinac, oxyphenbutazone, phenacetin, phenylbutazone, phenylbutazone, piroxicam, piroxicam, pirprofen, pranoprofen, sudoxicam, tenoxican, sulfasalazine, sulindac, sulindac, suprofen, tiaprofenic acid, tiopinac, tioxaprofen, tolfenamic acid, tolmetin, tolmetin, zidometacin, zomepirac, and zomepirac); and (21) aerosolized antioxidant therapeutics such as S-Nitrosoglutathione. 1.3.2.12 Anti-Diabetic Agents The GCC agonist peptides described herein can be used in therapeutic combination with one or more anti-diabetic agents, including but not limited to: PPARγ agonists such as glitazones (e.g., WAY-120,744, AD 5075, balaglitazone, ciglitazone, darglitazone (CP-86325, Pfizer), englitazone (CP-68722, Pfizer), isaglitazone (MIT/J&J), MCC-555 (Mitsibishi disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,594,016), pioglitazone (such as such as Actos™ pioglitazone; Takeda), rosiglitazone (Avandia™; Smith Kline Beecham), rosiglitazone maleate, troglitazone (Rezulin®, disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,572,912), rivoglitazone (CS-OI 1, Sankyo), GL-262570 (Glaxo Welcome), BRL49653 (disclosed in WO98/05331), CLX-0921, 5-BTZD, GW-0207, LG-100641, JJT-501 (JPNT/P&U), L-895645 (Merck), R-119702 (Sankyo/Pfizer), NN-2344 (Dr. Reddy/NN), YM-440 (Yamanouchi), LY-300512, LY-519818, R483 (Roche), T131 (Tularik), and the like and compounds disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,687,777, U.S. Pat. No. 5,002,953, U.S. Pat. No. 5,741,803, U.S. Pat. No. 5,965,584, U.S. Pat. No. 6,150,383, U.S. Pat. No. 6,150,384, U.S. Pat. No. 6,166,042, U.S. Pat. No. 6,166,043, U.S. Pat. No. 6,172,090, U.S. Pat. No. 6,211,205, U.S. Pat. No. 6,271,243, U.S. Pat. No. 6,288,095, U.S. Pat. No. 6,303,640, U.S. Pat. No. 6,329,404, U.S. Pat. No. 5,994,554, WO97/10813, WO97/27857, WO97/28115, WO97/28137, WO97/27847, WO00/76488, WO03/000685, WO03/027112, WO03/035602, WO03/048130, WO03/055867, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof; biguanides such as metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride, such as Glucophage™, Bristol-Myers Squibb); metformin hydrochloride with glyburide, such as Glucovance™, Bristol-Myers Squibb); buformin (Imidodicarbonimidic diamide, N-butyl-); etoformine (1-Butyl-2-ethylbiguanide, Schering A. G.); other metformin salt forms (including where the salt is chosen from the group of, acetate, benzoate, citrate, ftimarate, embonate, chlorophenoxyacetate, glycolate, palmoate, aspartate, methanesulphonate, maleate, parachlorophenoxyisobutyrate, formate, lactate, succinate, sulphate, tartrate, cyclohexanecarboxylate, hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate, hexadecanoate, octodecanoate, benzenesulphonate, trimethoxybenzoate, paratoluenesulphonate, adamantanecarboxylate, glycoxylate, glutamate, pyrrolidonecarboxylate, naphthalenesulphonate, 1-glucosephosphate, nitrate, sulphite, dithionate and phosphate), and phenformin; protein tyrosine phosphatase-IB (PTP-IB) inhibitors, such as A-401,674, KR 61639, OC-060062, OC-83839, OC-297962, MC52445, MC52453, ISIS 113715, and those disclosed in WO99/585521, WO99/58518, WO99/58522, WO99/61435, WO03/032916, WO03/032982, WO03/041729, WO03/055883, WO02/26707, WO02/26743, JP2002114768, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; sulfonylureas such as acetohexamide (e.g. Dymelor, Eli Lilly), carbutamide, chlorpropamide (e.g. Diabinese®, Pfizer), gliamilide (Pfizer), gliclazide (e.g. Diamcron, Servier Canada Inc), glimepiride (e.g. disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,379,785, such as Amaryl, Aventis), glipentide, glipizide (e.g. Glucotrol or Glucotrol XL Extended Release, Pfizer), gliquidone, glisolamide, glyburide/glibenclamide (e.g. Micronase or Glynase Prestab, Pharmacia & Upjohn and Diabeta, Aventis), tolazamide (e.g. Tolinase), and tolbutamide (e.g. Orinase), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; meglitinides such as repaglinide (e.g. PranidinO, Novo Nordisk), KAD1229 (PF/Kissei), and nateglinide (e.g. Starlix®, Novartis), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; a glucoside hydrolase inhibitors (or glucoside inhibitors) such as acarbose (e.g. Precose™, Bayer disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,904,769), miglitol (such as GLYSET™, Pharmacia & Upjohn disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,639,436), camiglibose (Methyl 6-deoxy-6-[(2R,3R,4R,5S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidino]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, Marion Merrell Dow), voglibose (Takeda), adiposine, emiglitate, pradimicin-Q, salbostatin, CKD-711, MDL-25,637, MDL-73,945, and MOR 14, and the compounds disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,062,950, U.S. Pat. No. 4,174,439, U.S. Pat. No. 4,254,256, U.S. Pat. No. 4,701,559, U.S. Pat. No. 4,639,436, U.S. Pat. No. 5,192,772, U.S. Pat. No. 4,634,765, U.S. Pat. No. 5,157,116, U.S. Pat. No. 5,504,078, U.S. Pat. No. 5,091,418, U.S. Pat. No. 5,217,877, US51091 and WOO 1/47528 (polyamines); α-amylase inhibitors such as tendamistat, trestatin, and A1-3688, and the compounds disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,451,455, U.S. Pat. No. 4,623,714, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,273,765; SGLT2 inhibtors including those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,414,126 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,515,117; an aP2 inhibitor such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,548,529; insulin secreatagogues such as linogliride, A-4166, forskilin, dibutyrl cAMP, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; fatty acid oxidation inhibitors, such as clomoxir, and etomoxir, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; A2 antagonists, such as midaglizole, isaglidole, deriglidole, idazoxan, earoxan, and fluparoxan, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; insulin and related compounds (e.g. insulin mimetics) such as biota, LP-100, novarapid, insulin detemir, insulin lispro, insulin glargine, insulin zinc suspension (lente and ultralente), Lys-Pro insulin, GLP-I (1-36) amide, GLP-I (73-7) (insulintropin, disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,614,492), LY-315902 (Lilly), GLP-I (7-36)-NH2), AL-401 (Autoimmune), certain compositions as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,579,730, U.S. Pat. No. 4,849,405, U.S. Pat. No. 4,963,526, U.S. Pat. No. 5,642,868, U.S. Pat. No. 5,763,396, U.S. Pat. No. 5,824,638, U.S. Pat. No. 5,843,866, U.S. Pat. No. 6,153,632, U.S. Pat. No. 6,191,105, and WO 85/05029, and primate, rodent, or rabbit insulin including biologically active variants thereof including allelic variants, more preferably human insulin available in recombinant form (sources of human insulin include pharmaceutically acceptable and sterile formulations such as those available from Eli Lilly (Indianapolis, Ind. 46285) as Humulin™ (human insulin rDNA origin), also see the THE PHYSICIAN'S DESK REFERENCE, 55.sup.th Ed. (2001) Medical Economics, Thomson Healthcare (disclosing other suitable human insulins); non-thiazolidinediones such as JT-501 and farglitazar (GW-2570/GI-262579), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; PPARα/γ dual agonists such as AR-HO39242 (Aztrazeneca), GW-409544 (Glaxo-Wellcome), BVT-142, CLX-0940, GW-1536, GW-1929, GW-2433, KRP-297 (Kyorin Merck; 5-[(2,4-Dioxo thiazolidinyl)methyl]methoxy-N4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyljbenzamide), L-796449, LR-90, MK-0767 (Merck/Kyorin/Banyu), SB 219994, muraglitazar (BMS), tesaglitzar (Astrazeneca), reglitazar (JTT-501) and those disclosed in WO99/16758, WO99/19313, WO99/20614, WO99/38850, WO00/23415, WO00/23417, WO00/23445, WO00/50414, WO01/00579, WO01/79150, WO02/062799, WO03/004458, WO03/016265, WO03/018010, WO03/033481, WO03/033450, WO03/033453, WO03/043985, WO 031053976, U.S. application Ser. No. 09/664,598, filed Sep. 18, 2000, Murakami et al. Diabetes 47, 1841-1847 (1998), and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; other insulin sensitizing drugs; VPAC2 receptor agonists; GLK modulators, such as those disclosed in WO03/015774; retinoid modulators such as those disclosed in WO03/000249; GSK 3β/GSK 3 inhibitors such as 4-[2-(2-bromophenyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl]pyridine and those compounds disclosed in WO03/024447, WO03/037869, WO03/037877, WO03/037891, WO03/068773, EP1295884, EP1295885, and the like; glycogen phosphorylase (HGLPa) inhibitors such as CP-368,296, CP-316,819, BAYR3401, and compounds disclosed in WOO 1/94300, WO02/20530, WO03/037864, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof; ATP consumption promotors such as those disclosed in WO03/007990; TRB3 inhibitors; vanilloid receptor ligands such as those disclosed in WO03/049702; hypoglycemic agents such as those disclosed in WO03/015781 and WO03/040114; glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors such as those disclosed in WO03/035663 agents such as those disclosed in WO99/51225, US20030134890, WO01/24786, and WO03/059870; insulin-responsive DNA binding protein-1 (IRDBP-I) as disclosed in WO03/057827, and the like; adenosine A2 antagonists such as those disclosed in WO03/035639, WO03/035640, and the like; PPARδ agonists such as GW 501516, GW 590735, and compounds disclosed in JP10237049 and WO02/14291; dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP-IV) inhibitors, such as isoleucine thiazolidide, NVP-DPP728A (1-[[[2-[(5-cyanopyridin-2-yl)amino]ethyl]amino]acetyl]-2-cyano-(S)-pyrrolidine, disclosed by Hughes et al, Biochemistry, 38(36), 11597-11603, 1999), P32/98, NVP-LAF-237, P3298, TSL225 (tryptophyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, disclosed by Yamada et al, Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Lett. 8 (1998) 1537-1540), valine pyrrolidide, TMC-2A/2B/2C, CD-26 inhibitors, FE999011, P9310/K364, VIP 0177, DPP4, SDZ 274-444, 2-cyanopyrrolidides and 4-cyanopyrrolidides as disclosed by Ashworth et al, Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Lett., Vol. 6, No. 22, pp 1163-1166 and 2745-2748 (1996), and the compounds disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,395,767, U.S. Pat. No. 6,573,287, U.S. Pat. No. 6,395,767 (compounds disclosed include BMS-477118, BMS-471211 and BMS 538,305), WO99/38501, WO99/46272, WO99/67279, WO99/67278, WO99/61431 WO03/004498, WO03/004496, EP1258476, WO02/083128, WO02/062764, WO03/000250, WO03/002530, WO03/002531, WO03/002553, WO03/002593, WO03/000180, and WO03/000181; GLP-I agonists such as exendin-3 and exendin-4 (including the 39 aa polypeptide synthetic exendin-4 called Exenatide®), and compounds disclosed in US2003087821 and NZ 504256, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; peptides including amlintide and Symlin® (pramlintide acetate); and glycokinase activators such as those disclosed in US2002103199 (fused heteroaromatic compounds) and WO02/48106 (isoindolin-1-one-substituted propionamide compounds). EXAMPLES Example 1 Clinical Study for Safety and Efficacy in Humans for the Treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Constipation A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-day repeat oral, dose ranging study was conducted in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of SP-304 (1.0 mg, 3.0 mg, 9.0 mg and 0.3 mg) for 14 days in patients with CIC. One secondary objective was to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of SP-304 in plasma. Other secondary objectives included evaluations of pharmacodynamic effects (efficacy) on parameters such as the time to first bowel movement after daily dosing with SP-304, bowel habits over time—for example, spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs), complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs), and stool consistency [using Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS)]—and other patient reported outcomes such as abdominal discomfort. The study included five arms with assigned interventions as indicated in the table below. Arms Interventions SP-304 1.0 mg: Experimental Subjects receiving SP-304 1.0 mg for 14 consecutive days SP-304 3.0 mg: Experimental Subjects receiving SP-304 3.0 mg for 14 consecutive days SP-304 9.0 mg: Experimental Subjects receiving SP-304 9.0 mg for 14 consecutive days Placebo: Placebo Comparator Subjects receiving Placebo for 14 consecutive days SP-304 0.3 mg: Experimental Subjects receiving SP-304 0.3 mg for 14 consecutive days Subjects diagnosed with CIC were screened for the anticipated 4 cohorts to yield 80 randomized subjects for enrollment. There were four dose cohorts (1.0 mg, 3.0 mg, 9.0 mg and 0.3 mg) with 20 subjects per dose cohort [randomization ratio 3:1 (15 receive SP-304:5 receive placebo)]. Subjects who continued to meet all the entry criteria and complete the pre-treatment bowel movement (BM) diary received, in a double-blind, randomized fashion, SP-304 or matching placebo. The entry criteria included (1) meeting modified ROME III criteria for chronic constipation (CC); (2) no significant finding in colonoscopy within past 5 years; (3) good health as determined by physical examination, medical history, vital signs, ECG, clinical chemistry, hematology, urinalysis, drug screen and serology assessments; and (4) during 14-day pre-treatment period, subjects reporting <6 SBM and <3 CSBM in each pre-treatment week. All subjects receiving at least one dose of SP-304 or matching placebo were considered evaluable for the safety endpoints (78 total). If a subject did not have a major protocol deviation, had at least 5 days of study treatment each week and corresponding entries for bowel habits, he/she was considered evaluable for efficacy parameters (54-55 total). The demographics of the subjects in the study are summarized in the table below. Placebo 0.3 mg 1.0 mg 3.0 mg 9.0 mg Age 47.7 (14.6)      51.1 (12.0)      50.5 (10.6)      48.5 (16.1)      47.3 (12.7)      Gender Female 18 (90.0%) 12 (85.7%) 14 (100%)  13 (86.7)   12 (80%)   Male  2 (10.0%)  2 (14.3%) 0  2 (13.3%) 3 (20%)  Race White 17 (85.0%) 13 (92.9%) 12 (85.7%) 14 (93.3%) 12 (80.0%) African American 1 (5.0%) 0 1 (7.1%) 0  2 (13.3%) Asian 1 (5.0%) 1 (7.1%) 1 (7.1%) 0 1 (6.7%) American Indian 1 (5.0%) 0 0 0 0 Other 0 0 0 1 (6.7%) 0 Values for age are the mean (standard deviation); values for gender and race are the number (percentage of experimental arm). Results Pharmacokinetics and Safety: There was no detectable systemic absorption of plecanatide (assay sensitivity ≧10 ng/mL). No serious adverse events (SAE) were reported in subjects receiving plecanatide and no deaths reported in this study. 10% (2/20) subjects who received placebo and 17.2% (10/58) subjects who received SP-304 reported adverse events considered as related to the treatment. The majority of adverse events were mild/moderate and transient in nature. 10% (2/20) subjects who received placebo and 5.2% (3/58) subjects who received SP-304 reported GI-related adverse events considered as related to treatment. There was no diarrhea reported for any subject receiving SP-304. The table below is a GI-related adverse event (AE) summary. Placebo 0.3 mg 1.0 mg 3.0 mg 9.0 mg n = 20 n = 14 n = 14 n = 15 n = 15 Abdominal 1 (5.0%) 0 0 0 0 Cramping Abdominal 1 (5.0%) 0 0 0 0 Pain Bloating 0 0 0 0 1 (6.7%) Diarrhea 1 (5.0%) 0 0 0 0 Flatulence  2 (10.0%) 0 0 0 0 Nausea 0 1 (7.1%) 0 0 Upset 0 0 0 1 (6.7%) 0 Stomach Values are the number (percentage of experimental arm). Efficacy: SP-304 (plecanatide) treatment decreased the time to first bowel movement, increased stool frequency (SBM and CSBM), improved stool consistency, and reduced straining and abdominal discomfort. See FIGS. 1-6 . Example 2 Composition of Wet Granulation Batch 10005 Concentration Item No. Ingredient Use % w/w 1 SP304 0.23 2 Mannogem EZ, Diluent 79.77 USP/EP (Mannitol) 3 PROSOLV SMCC 90 Binder 15.0 LM (silicified microcrystalline cellulose) 4 Purified Water vehicle n/a (chilled to 5° C.), USP 5 Purified Water n/a (chilled to 5° C.), USP 6 Explotab (Sodium Disintregant 4.0 Starch Glycolate) 7 Pruv (sodium stearyl Lubricant 1.0 fumarate) Total 100 Example 3 Composition of Wet Granulation Batch 10007 Concentration Item No. Ingredient Use % w/w 1 SP304 0.3 3 PROSOLV SMCC 90 Binder 95.7 HD (silicified microcrystalline cellulose) 4 Purified Water vehicle n/a (chilled to 5° C.), USP 5 Purified Water n/a (chilled to 5° C.), USP 6 Explotab (Sodium Disintregant 4.0 Starch Glycolate) Total 100 Example 4 Excipient Compatibility Binary mixtures of SP-304 were prepared and stored in glass vials. For solid excipients the binary mixtures were comprised of 9.1% or 50% excipient. Glass vials were stored at 40 C/75RH open or closed. The percent purity (measured by HPLC) of the GCC agonist peptide (SP-304) after storage for the time indicated in each column (i.e., 1, 2, or 3 months for the closed vial and 0.5, 1, 2, or 3 months for the open vials) is indicated by numerical values. PUR- EX- Closed Open POSE CIPIENT 1M 2M 3M 0.5M 1M 2M 3M None None 91.4 88.2 84.1 93.7 91.2 88.2 84.8 Diluent Sorbitol 92.4 90.1 87.2 92.2 90.8 87.1 80.9 Mannitol 91.9 88.4 85.1 92.6 90.5 87.9 83.8 Prosolv 92.2 89.6 86.3 93 90.5 87.8 83.7 Starch 91.4 88.7 85.4 92.5 90.5 87.9 83.7 Binder Emdex 91.3 88.7 85.2 91.8 90.7 87.9 81.9 Plasdone 92.8 90.6 85.6 93.1 90.4 87.3 83 Disin- Explotab 91.9 89.4 87.1 92.2 90.3 84.7 78.3 tegrant Poly- 92 89 85.6 93.5 90.3 87.4 83.1 plasdone Glidant Cabosil 92.1 88.3 85.6 92.6 90.5 87.3 84 Lubricant Mg stearte 91.5 87.7 84.6 92.6 90.6 87.6 83.8 PRUV 92 88.3 85.7 92.2 90.5 87.5 83.8 compritol 90.8 87.1 84.4 92 90.5 86.7 84.1 Excipient PEG 3350 90.9 87 83.3 91.5 89.4 84.4 77.5 Anti- Ascorbic 91.3 86.9 83 92.8 90 85.7 83.8 oxidant acid BHA 91.9 88.9 85.9 93.5 90.8 87.4 85.8 BHT 90.8 87.2 84.6 92.4 90.3 86.6 83.6 EDTA 90.9 87.5 84.1 92.3 90.4 86.7 84.6 Capsule HPMC 92.2 89 85.2 92.3 90.2 86.4 83.5 capsule Gelatin 91.5 88.3 84.3 84.3 90.5 86.7 83.6 capsule Liquid Medium 90.4 for chain liquid trig filled capsule PG 89.3 dicaprylo- caprate Vit E 90 Soybean 89.6 oil Cremaphor 79.7 PG 3.4 PG 400 0.7 Example 5 Geometric Dry Mix for 0.3 mg Capsule Place 12 g mannitol in mortar. Add 4 g SP-304 and gently mix until a visually uniform powder is obtained. Transfer to Turbula mixer. Rinse mortar with mannitol and transfer to Turbula mixer and mix at high speed for 10 minutes. Add about 150 g of mannitol to 4 quart V-shell mixer. Transfer the contents of the Turbula mixer to the V-shell and add 150 g of mannitol mix. Discharge v-shell contents and screen through 40 mesh and return to mixer. Add 586 g of mannitol to mixer and mix for 20 minutes. Example 6 Wet Granulation Process Batch 017-10005 comprised of mannitol and low-moisture (2.4%) PROSOLV LM90 (0.33 g/mL) was sprayed with SP-304 solution and fluid bed dried resulted in granulation water content of 0.35%. The final blend contained 1% water, flowed well, and filled capsules well. The 2nd prototype 017-1006 comprised of the same components was adjusted to obtain a target capsule fill weight of 100 mg based on the results of the 1st batch. Water was sprayed onto powder blend with SP-304. The inlet temperature was 50 C and the granulation was dried for 1.5 hours and stopped when the product temperature reached 36 C. The 3rd (batch017-10006) and 4th (batch 017-10007) capsule prototypes will use PROSOLV HD90, which is a higher density material with superior flow properties and higher moisture content of 5.5% than the PROSOLV LM90. The moisture content of the PROSOLV HD90 is readily removed by fluid bed drying. The density of PROSOLV HD90 is about 0.55 g/mL. The PRUV lubricant will be removed for these batches. Example 7 Wet Granulation Stability SP-304 was extracted from the capsules by sonication at either at room temperature (RT) or cold temperature and the amount of peptide was determined by HPLC. Initial percentages are based on the amount stated on the label. Batch % peptide (initial) % peptide (1 mos at RT) 017-10006 101.1 (sonicated RT)  97.6 (sonicated cold) 017-10008  97.5 (sonicated RT) 108.2 (sonciated cold) Example 8 1M Capsule Stability in HDPE Bottles Capsules contained 0.3 mg SP-304 with the remainder of the fill weight (up to 5 mg) made up by mannitol (Perlitol 300 DC). Each capsule contained 1.5% by weight SP-304 and 98.5% mannitol. The capsule shell was composed of HPMC. Amounts are relative to the amount specified on the label (i.e., 0.30 mg peptide). The indicated number of capsules was placed in a high density polyethylene bottle with an induction seal and molecular sieve desiccant for 1 month at either 2-8C (first two columns) or 25 C and 60% relative humidity (last two columns). The initial amount of peptide present was 101% of the label claim. The last row gives the amount of peptide remaining after 1 month storage at the indicated temperature as determined by HPLC. 2-8 C. 2-8 C. 25 C./60RH 25 C./60RH 1-capsule per 6-capsules per 1-capsule per 6-capsules per bottle bottle bottle bottle 100% 92% 92% 98% Example 9 Composition of Batch 1528-2855-RD (Capsules) and Spray Coating and Drying Process Amount per Concentration Item No. Ingredient unit (mg) % w/w 1 SP-304 0.3246 0.3246 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 99.10 99.10 (Celphere SCP-100) 3 Calcium chloride dihydrate 0.2622 0.2622 4 Leucine USP 0.1171 0.1171 5 Hypromellose (Methocel E5 0.2000 0.2000 PremLV) 6 Purified Water, USP 7.2 mL* n/a Total 100 100 *The amount of water is calculated based on use of 119.0 mL purified water for the whole batch containing 5.356 g SP-304. The spray drying process of making the batch 2855-RD is described below. Preparation of Coating Dispersion: Purified water was added to a glass container and stirred such that a liquid vortex was produced without introducing air. Then calcium chloride dihydrate was slowly added into the water. The mixture was stirred until the salt was dissolved or well dispersed. Next, leucine was slowly added and the resulting mixture was stirred until the amino acid was dissolved or well dispersed. Afterward, methocel was slowly added and the mixture was stirred until methocel was completely dissolved. The solution could be warmed up to dissolve methocel, if necessary. The resulting excipient solution was allowed to cool to room temperature and pass through 80 mesh screen. Then, 127.9 g of screened excipient solution was added to a glass container and placed in an ice bath for 0.5 to 1 hour until the solution reached 0° C. Next, SP-304 was added into the cold excipient solution. The mixture was stir vigorously to allow the peptide to dissolve in the cold solution. The resulting peptide solution was kept cold in the ice bath as a spraying/coating solution. Drug Layering A Glatt GPCG-2 fluid bed processor (with top spray tower) with a Wurster insert was set up for drug layering onto Celphere SCP-100 beads. After loading the Wurster column with Celphere SCP-100 beads, bed temperature was raised to 35° C. and maintained for 30 minutes with minimum fluidization of the beads. The bed temperature was reduced until an exhaust temperature of 35° C. was achieved. The pump tubing of the peristaltic pump used was primed by circulating the spraying solution mentioned above. After the spraying apparatus was adjusted to obtain a satisfactory spray pattern, the coating solution was sprayed onto Celphere SCP-100 beads until all coating solution was sprayed. Operating parameters were recorded. The bed temperature and fluidization were maintained until the beads were sufficiently dry. The fluidization was then reduced while the bed temperature was maintained at 35° C. for 10 minutes. 2 g of beads were sampled for moisture analysis when the bed temperature was kept at 35° C. When the moisture of the sampled beads reached <5% moisture, the coated beads were discharged and loaded into a dry container. LOD (loss on drying) 2.399%. Example 10 Composition of Batch 1528-2851-RD (Tablets) and Spray Coating and Drying Process Amount per Concentration Item No. Ingredient unit (mg) % w/w 1 SP-304 0.3246 0.3607 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 88.88 98.75 (Avicel PH 102) 3 Calcium chloride dihydrate 0.2622 0.2913 4 Leucine USP 0.1171 0.1301 5 Hypromellose (Methocel E5 0.2000 0.2222 PremLV) 6 Magnesium stearate 0.225 0.2500 7 Purified Water, USP 7.2 mL* n/a Total 90.0 100 *The amount of water is calculated based on use of 119.0 mL purified water for the whole batch containing 5.356 g SP-304. The spray coating and drying process of making the batch 2851-RD is described below. Preparation of Coating Dispersion: Purified water was added to a glass container and stirred such that a liquid vortex was produced without introducing air. Then calcium chloride dihydrate was slowly added into the water. The mixture was stirred until the salt was dissolved or well dispersed. Next, leucine was slowly added and the resulting mixture was stirred until the amino acid was dissolved or well dispersed. Afterward, methocel was slowly added and the mixture was stirred until methocel was completely dissolved. The solution could be warmed up to dissolve methocel, if necessary. The resulting excipient solution was allowed to cool to room temperature and pass through 80 mesh screen. Then, 127.9 g of screened excipient solution was added to a glass container and placed in an ice bath for 0.5 to 1 hour until the solution reached 0° C. Next, SP-304 was added into the cold excipient solution. The mixture was stir vigorously to allow the peptide to dissolve in the cold solution. The resulting peptide solution was kept cold in the ice bath as a spraying/coating solution. Drug Layering A Glatt GPCG-2 fluid bed processor (with top spray tower) with a Wurster insert was set up for drug layering onto Avicel PH 102 beads. After loading the Wurster column with Avicel PH 102 beads, temperature was raised to 35° C. and maintained for 30 minutes with minimum fluidization of the beads. The bed temperature was reduced until an exhaust temperature of 35° C. was achieved. The pump tubing of the peristaltic pump used was primed by circulating the spraying solution mentioned above. After the spraying apparatus was adjusted to obtain a satisfactory spray pattern, the coating solution was sprayed onto Avicel PH 102 beads until all coating solution was sprayed. Operating parameters were recorded. The bed temperature and fluidization were maintained until the beads were sufficiently dry. The fluidization was then reduced while the bed temperature was maintained at 35° C. for 10 minutes. 2 g of beads were sampled for moisture analysis when the bed temperature was kept at 35° C. When the moisture of the sampled beads reached <5% moisture, the coated beads were discharged and loaded into a dry container. LOD (loss on drying)<5%. The net weight of the coated blend was determined for calculation of the amount of magnesium stearate needed to lubricate the blend. Then the magnesium stearate was added to the coated blend and the mixture was blended for 1 minute. Compression A Fette tablet press was set up. Then the blend mixture was loaded into the powder hopper and tooling was installed. The weight of each tablet was set to be 90 mg±5% and hardness to be 4-6 Kp. The weight, hardness and thickness of tablets were measured and recorded every 5 to 10 minutes. Friability measurement was also performed to ensure satisfactory product. Example 11 Composition of Batch 1528-2850-RD (Capsules) and Process Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 0.3246 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 99.43 (Avicel PH 102) 3 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 4 HPMC capsule shells n/a Total 100 The dry blend process of making the batch 2850-RD is described below. Blending: Avicel PH 102 was screened through a 60 mesh screen. V-blenders (1 Qt, 4 Qt, and 16 Qt) were then dusted by the screened Avicel PH 102. SP-304 was screened through a 200 mesh screen and loaded into the 1-Qt V-blender. Then, about 80 g Avicel PH 102 was added into the 1-Qt blender and the mixture was blended for 10 minutes at 25 rpm. The mixture was then transferred to the 4-Qt V-blender which was pre-dusted by the screened Avicel PH 102. The 1-Qt blender was rinsed with Avicel and the rinse material was transferred to the 4-Qt blender. The rinsing was repeated until all SP-304 was transferred to the 4-Qt blender. About 200 g Avicel was added to the 4-Qt V-blender and the mixture was blended for 10 minutes. The resulting blend was then screened through a 60 mesh screen and then transferred into the pre-dusted 16-Qt blender (dusted with 1500 g Avicel). The 4-Qt blender was rinsed with Avicel and the rinse material was transferred to the 16-Qt blender. The remaining Avicel was added to the 16-Qt blender and the mixture was blended for 10 minutes. The resulting blend was passed through Comil and then returned to the 16-Qt blender and was further blended for 5 minutes. Proper amount of magnesium stearate was weighed, screened through a 60 mesh screen, and added into the 16-Qt blender. The resulting mixture was blended for 2 minutes. Encapsulation A MG2 Planeta capsule filler was set up. Average weight of the empty capsule shells was determined and target capsule fill weight was calculated (±5%). The blend from the above process was added into the hopper of the capsule filler and encapsulation was started. Run weight parameters were manually adjusted. Resulting capsules were then sorted according to the target fill weight. Example 12 Composition of Batch 1528-2850B-RD (Tablets) and Process Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 0.3246 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 99.43 (Avicel PH 102) 3 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 Total 100 The dry blend process of making the batch 2850B-RD is described below. Blending: Avicel PH 102 was screened through a 60 mesh screen. V-blenders (1 Qt, 4 Qt, and 16 Qt) were then dusted by the screened Avicel PH 102. SP-304 was screened through a 200 mesh screen and loaded into the 1-Qt V-blender. Then, about 80 g Avicel PH 102 was added into the 1-Qt blender and the mixture was blended for 10 minutes at 25 rpm. The mixture was then transferred to the 4-Qt V-blender which was pre-dusted by the screened Avicel PH 102. The 1-Qt blender was rinsed with Avicel and the rinse material was transferred to the 4-Qt blender. The rinsing was repeated until all SP-304 was transferred to the 4-Qt blender. About 200 g Avicel was added to 4-Qt V-blender and the mixture was blended for 10 minutes. The resulting blend was then screened through a 60 mesh screen and then transferred into the pre-dusted 16-Qt blender (dusted with 1500 g Avicel). The 4-Qt blender was rinsed with Avicel and the rinse material was transferred to the 16-Qt blender. The remaining Avicel was added to the 16-Qt blender and the mixture was blended for 10 minutes. The resulting blend was passed through Comil and then returned to the 16-Qt blender and was further blended for 5 minutes. Proper amount of magnesium stearate was weighed, screened through a 60 mesh screen, and added into the 16-Qt blender. The resulting mixture was blended for 2 minutes. Compression A Fette tablet press was set up. Then the blend mixture was loaded into the powder hopper and tooling was installed. The weight of each tablet was set to be 90 mg±5% and hardness to be 4-6 Kp. The weight, hardness, and thickness of tablets were measured and recorded every 5 to 10 minutes. Friability measurement was also performed to ensure satisfactory product. Example 13 Composition of Dry Blend Tablet Formulation 1528-3161-RD, 1 mg for Vacuum Drying Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 1.176 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 98.57 (Avicel PH 102) 3 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 Total 100 Example 14 Composition of Dry Blend Tablet Formulation 1528-3162-RD, 1 mg with Low-Moisture Cellulose Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 1.176 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 97.09 (Avicel PH 112) 3 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 Total 100 Example 15 Composition of Spray Coated Trehalose Granules Tablet Formulation 1528-3170-RD, 1 mg Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 1.176 2 Trehalose granules 70.48 3 Methocel ES Premium LV 0.50 4 Histidine (in coating 0.9225 solution) 5 Calcium ascorbate 0.100 6 Purified water N/A 7 Trehalose powder (in 1.0176 coating solution) 8 Microcrystalline cellulose 25.00 (Avicel PH 200) 9 Histidine 0.5535 10 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 Total 100 The process for making spray coated trehalose Granules tablet formulation 1528-3170-RD is described below. Preparation of the Coating Dispersion Add purified water to labeled container and begin stirring. Stir such that a liquid vortex is produced without introducing air into liquid. Slowly add Methocel to solution. Stir until methocel is completely dissolved. Warm the solution if necessary to dissolve Methocel (≦50° C.). Solution must be cooled before adding other materials. Add Trehalose to solution. Stir until materials are dissolved. Add Calcium Ascorbate to solution. Stir until materials are dissolved. Adjust pH to 7.0 with 1N NaOH solution if pH >7.0. Record adjusted pH. Place the Coating Solution in an ice bath and allow it stay in the batch for 0.5 to 1 hour until it reaches the ice temperature. Check with a thermometer to ensure at ice temperature. Weigh portions of required amount of API on a weighing boat and add each portion carefully to the cold Excipient Solution. Stir vigorously to allow peptide wetting and dissolving in the cold solution. Total amount of peptide must equal 14.107 g. Continue stirring solution such that a liquid vortex is produced without introducing air into liquid. Stir until PLECANATIDE is completely dissolved. Keep peptide solution cold all the time in the ice bath. Add Histidine to solution. Stir not more than 10 min to dissolve the material. Obtain final pH of the Coating Solution. Obtain net weight of the Coating Solution. Coating Solution must be used within 30 min to avoid coloration. Drug Layering Setup Glatt GPCG2 with Wurster insert according to SOP EQP-OCM-064 for drug layering onto Trehalose Granules with coating dispersion. Use Glatt GPCG2 In-process form, “EQP-OCM-064-F1,” to record in-process information. Turn unit on and preheat column. Fluid Bed Processor: Glatt GPCG-2. Filter: 200 micron screen. Product Container: 4″ wurster, stainless steel. Insert height from bottom: 1″. Spray direction: Top Spray. Fluid Nozzle Size/Type: 1 mm. Pump: Peristaltic, Master Flex LS. Tubing: Nalge #14 Silicon. Bed Temperature: ≦40° C. Inlet air temperature: Adjust to meet bed temperature target. Outlet air temperature: Monitor & record. Spray rate: initial rate 4-6 g/min, adjust as required. Atomizing air pressure: 20 psi. Air flow: 60 cmh and adjust for fluidization. Prepare double polyethylene bags large enough to hold drug layered Granules. Load column with Trehalose. Increase bed temperature to 35° C. and maintain for 30 minutes with minimum fluidization of the Granules. Reduce bed temperature until an exhaust temperature of 35° C. is achieved. Prime pump tubing by circulating spraying solution; must not use more than 40 g for tubing priming. Adjust the spraying apparatus to obtain satisfactory spray pattern. Coating Solution Weight after priming should >317 g. Record initial weight below before spraying onto trehalose. Start spraying the coating solution onto Trehalose Granules. Record operating parameters on fluid bed processing form. Stop spraying when 297.2 g of coating solution has been sprayed. Maintain bed temperature and continue fluidization until Granules are sufficiently dry. Reduce fluidization and maintain bed temperature at 35° C. for 10 minutes. Do not cool down the Granules. Sample 2 g for moisture analysis until moisture is below 1%. Discharge coated Granules into pre-prepared and labeled container (with tare weight) lined with double polyethylene bag. Calculate net weight of drug layered Granules. Setup Lyophilizer per SOP EQP-OCM-00002. Load drug layered granules into a Lyoguard tray (Save bags). Use recipe 3 to dry blend overnight. Discharge dried blend into saved polyethylene bags. Obtain final moisture of the dried granules. Record final Moisture (<1%). Calculate net weight of dried Granules. Blending Screen required Avicel and pass through 60 mesh screen. Setup 4 qt V-blender per SOP EQP-OCM-00056. Weigh amount of Histidine needed and blend with small amount of Avicel weighed. Charge into 4 qt. V-blender. Transfer Plecanatide Dried Granules into the V-Blender. Rinse 2-3 times the Lyoguard tray from Step 24 with adequate amount of Weighed Avicel. Transfer rinses into 4 qt. V-blender. Transfer all remaining Pre-weighed/screened Avicel into the V-Blender. Mix for 15 minutes. Weigh and screen Magnesium Stearate through a 60 mesh screen. Charge Magnesium Stearate to the 4 qt V-Blender. Ensure the cover is securely closed with no potential powder leakage during blending. Blend for 2 minutes. Compression Set-up Korsch press per SOP EQP-OCM-00087. Install 0.250″ Standard Concave Round Plain tolling. Obtain blend Assay results and calculate Target Tablet Weight. Acceptable weight range of tablets is ±5.0%. Load the Final Blend into the powder hopper. Refill as necessary. Adjust fill weight to obtain tablets in the range of 95.0-105.0 mg and hardness in the range of 4-6 kP. Verify friability is NMT 1.0%. Check 5 tablet weights periodically every 5-10 min to ensure tablet weight is within the range and record on form QRA-DOC-00011-F6. After tablet weights are recorded, obtain and record 3 tablet hardness and thickness during the periodic weight check. Continue to compress acceptable tablets until the blend is used up. Once press is running properly to achieve specifications above, perform final Friability test and record results (Spec: NMT 1.0%). Example 16 Composition of Spray Coated Trehalose Granules Tablet Formulation 1528-3171-RD, 1 mg Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 1.167 2 Trehalose granules 70.31 3 Methocel ES Premium LV 0.50 4 Arginine 1.657 5 Calcium ascorbate 0.100 6 Water for injection N/A 7 Trehalose powder (in 1.0176 coating solution) 8 Microcrystalline cellulose 25.00 (Avicel PH 200) 9 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 Total 100 The process for making spray coated trehalose Granules tablet formulation 1528-3171-RD is described below. Preparation of Coating Solution Add purified water (Item 6) to labeled container and begin stirring. Stir such that a liquid vortex is produced without introducing air into liquid. Slowly add Methocel to solution. Stir until methocel is completely dissolved. Warm the solution if necessary to dissolve Methocel (≦50° C.). Record appearance of solution. Solution must be cooled before adding other materials. Add Trehalose to solution. Stir until materials are dissolved. Record appearance of solution. Add Arginine to solution. Stir until materials are dissolved. Record appearance of solution. Add Calcium Ascorbate to solution. Stir until materials are dissolved. Record appearance of solution. Adjust solution pH to pH 8.5-8.6 with concentrated HCl followed by adjust pH to 8.3-8.4 with 10N HCl. Record final adjusted pH. Place the Coating Solution in an ice bath and allow it stay in the batch for 0.5 to 1 hour until it reaches the ice temperature. Check with a thermometer to ensure at ice temperature. Weigh portions of required amount of API on a weighing boat and add each portion carefully to the cold Excipient Solution. Stir vigorously to allow peptide wetting and dissolving in the cold solution. Total amount of peptide must equal 14.006 g. Continue stirring solution such that a liquid vortex is produced without introducing air into liquid. Stir until PLECANATIDE is completely dissolved. Keep peptide solution cold all the time in the ice bath. Weigh 5.0 g of WFI to rinse API container. Carefully rinse the side of coating solution container and completely transfer the rinse back to the coating solution container. Obtain final pH of the Coating Solution. Obtain net weight of the Coating Solution (˜360.3 g). Coating Solution must be used within as soon as possible. Drug Layering Setup Glatt GPCG2 with Wurster insert according to SOP EQP-OCM-064 for drug layering onto Trehalose Granules with coating dispersion. Use Glatt GPCG2 In-process form, “EQP-OCM-064-F1,” to record in-process information. Turn unit on and preheat column. Fluid Bed Processor: Glatt GPCG-2. Filter: 200 micron screen. Product Container: 4″ wurster, stainless steel. Insert height from bottom: 1″. Spray direction: Top Spray. Fluid Nozzle Size/Type: 1 mm. Pump: Peristaltic, Master Flex LS. Tubing: Nalge #14 Silicon. Bed Temperature: ≦40° C. Inlet air temperature: Adjust to meet bed temperature target. Outlet air temperature: Monitor & record. Spray rate: initial rate 4-6 g/min, adjust as required. Atomizing air pressure: 20 psi. Air flow: 60 cmh and adjust for fluidization. Load column with Trehalose G. Increase bed temperature to 35° C. and maintain for 30 minutes with minimum fluidization of the Granules. Reduce bed temperature until an exhaust temperature of 35° C. is achieved. Prime pump tubing with coating solution. Must not use more than 40 g for tubing priming. Adjust the spraying apparatus to obtain satisfactory spray pattern. Record initial weight below before spraying onto trehalose. Start spraying the coating solution onto Trehalose Granules. Record operating parameters on fluid bed processing form. Stop spraying when 300.3 g of coating solution has been sprayed. Maintain bed temperature and continue fluidization until Granules are sufficiently dry. Reduce fluidization and maintain bed temperature at 35° C. for 10 minutes. Do not cool down the Granules. Sample 2 g for moisture analysis until moisture is below 1%. Discharge coated Granules into pre-prepared and labeled container (with tare weight) lined with double polyethylene bag. Calculate net weight of drug layered Granules. If moisture is >1%, vacuum dry blend as follows: Setup Lyophilizer per SOP EQP-OCM-00002. Load drug layered granules into a Lyoguard tray. Use recipe 3 to dry blend overnight. Discharge dried blend into saved polyethylene bags. Obtain final moisture of the dried granules. Calculate net weight of dried Granules. Blending Screen required Avicel and pass through 60 mesh screen. Setup 4 qt V-blender. Transfer Plecanatide Dried Granules into the V-Blender. Save bag for discharging final blend. Rinse 2-3 times the Lyoguard tray and bag with adequate amount of Weighed Avicel. Transfer rinses into 4 qt. V-blender. Transfer all remaining Pre-weighed/screened Avicel into the V-Blender. Mix for 20 minutes. Weigh and screen Magnesium Stearate through a 60 mesh screen. Charge Magnesium Stearate to the 4 qt V-Blender. Ensure the cover is securely closed with no potential powder leakage during blending. Blend for 2 minutes. Sample 3×350 mg of blend at three locations. Obtain exact weight of each sample that has been transferred into the sampling bottle. Compression Set-up Korsch press per SOP EQP-OCM-00087. Install 0.250″ Standard Concave Round Plain tolling. Obtain blend Assay results and calculate Target Tablet Weight. Acceptable weight range of tablets is ±5.0%. Load the Final Blend into the powder hopper. Refill as necessary. Adjust fill weight to obtain tablets in the range of 95.0-105.0 mg and hardness in the range of 4-6 kP. Verify friability is NMT 1.0%. Check 5 tablet weights periodically every 5-10 min to ensure tablet weight is within the range. After tablet weights are recorded, obtain and record 3 tablet hardness and thickness during the periodic weight check. Continue to compress acceptable tablets until the blend is used up. Once press is running properly to achieve specifications above, perform final Friability test and record results (Spec: NMT 1.0%). Example 17 Composition of Spray Coated Trehalose Granules Tablet Formulation 1528-3172, 1 mg Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 1.167 2 Trehalose granules 70.81 3 Methocel ES Premium LV 0.50 4 TRIS 1.1524 5 Calcium ascorbate 0.100 6 Water for injection N/A 7 Trehalose powder (in 1.0176 coating solution) 8 Microcrystalline cellulose 25.00 (Avicel PH 200) 9 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 Total 100 The process for making spray coated trehalose granules tablet formulation 1528-3172-RD is described below. Preparation of Coating Solution Add purified water to labeled container and begin stirring. Stir such that a liquid vortex is produced without introducing air into liquid. Slowly add Methocel to solution. Stir until methocel is completely dissolved. Warm the solution if necessary to dissolve Methocel (≦50° C.). Record appearance of solution. Solution must be cooled before adding other materials. Add Trehalose to solution. Stir until materials are dissolved. Record appearance of solution. Add TRIS to solution. Stir until materials are dissolved. Record appearance of solution. Add Calcium Ascorbate to solution. Stir until materials are dissolved. Record appearance of solution. Obtain solution pH: Adjust pH to pH 7.8-7.9 with concentrated HCl followed by adjust pH to 7.7-7.6 with 10N HCl. Record final adjusted pH. Place the Coating Solution in an ice bath and allow it stay in the batch for 0.5 to 1 hour until it reaches the ice temperature. Check with a thermometer to ensure at ice temperature. Weigh portions of required amount of API on a weighing boat and add each portion carefully to the cold Excipient Solution. Stir vigorously to allow peptide wetting and dissolving in the cold solution. Total amount of peptide must equal 14.006 g. Continue stirring solution such that a liquid vortex is produced without introducing air into liquid. Stir until PLECANATIDE is completely dissolved. Keep peptide solution cold all the time in the ice bath. Weigh 5.0 g of WFI to rinse API container. Carefully rinse the side of coating solution container and completely transfer the rinse back to the coating solution container. Obtain final pH of the Coating Solution. Obtain net weight of the Coating Solution (˜354.2 g). Coating Solution must be used as soon as possible. The blending and compression processes for batch 1528-3172-RD are similar to that described above for batch 1528-3171-RD. Example 18 Composition of 1 mg Dry Blend Tablet Formulation 1528-2925-RD Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 1.106 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 98.64 (Avicel PH 102) 3 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 Total 100 Example 19 Composition of 3 mg Dry Blend Tablet Formulation 1528-2926-RD Concentration Item No. Ingredient % w/w 1 SP-304 3.318 2 Microcrystalline cellulose 96.43 (Avicel PH 102) 3 Magnesium stearate 0.2500 Total 100 Other batches were prepared by the processes similar to those described in Examples 9-12. Their compositions are listed below. Batch 500-55: 0.33% plecanatide, 95.17% microcyrstalline cellulose, 4.0% sodium starch glycolate, and 0.5% magnesium stearate. Batches 1528-2907-RD and 2010F100A: 3.318% plecanatide, 96.43% Avicel, and 0.25% Mg stearate. Batches 1528-2906-RD and 2010F099A: 1.106% plecanatide, 98.65% Avicel, and 0.25% Mg stearate. Batches 1528-2890-RD and 2010F101A: 0.3246% plecanatide, 99.43% Avicel, and 0.25% Mg stearate. Formula compositions for batches 11H141, 11H152, and 11H140 in this table below (not previously disclosed) are the same as the formula compositions for GMP stability batches 2010F101A, 2010F099A, and 2010F100A, respectively. Example 20 Plecanatide Tablet and Capsule Stability Capsules and tablets of different batches were tested for their stability and the results were provided. Unless otherwise specified, 1M, 2M, 3M, or 4M in the tables below denotes that the measurements were carried out at the end of 1, 2, 3, or 4 month(s) of the storage period. Potency Summary: This test was performed by taking a composite sample of about 5 units to determine the average potency of the sample. The table below shows the stability of capsules or tablets in terms of potency (% of label claim). Potency (% Label Claim) Storage Condition Lot Package 40 C./75 RH 30 C./65 RH 25 C./60 RH 5 C. (description) Bulk* Package Initial 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 7M 10M 1M 2M 3M 4M 7M 8.5M 1528-2850- 88 HDPE bottle 89 87 89 91 80 89.3 89 RD (0.3 mg Oxyguard 91 91 92 91 79 88.9 90 dry blend bottle capsules) Blister strip 90 90 85 88 91 79 90 1528-2855- 94 HDPE bottle 101 100 96 102 88 98 RD (0.3 mg Oxyguard 101 96 99 104 87 100 coated bead bottle capsule) Blister strip 97 103 99 98 87 97 500-55 97 HDPE bottle 97 94 95 96 84 98 (0.3 mg dry Oxyguard 98 96 96 102 83 97 blend bottle capsule) Blister strip 93 97 93 95 106 83 96 1528-2850B- 76 HDPE 85 88 94 83 67 70 RD (0.3 mg bottle dry blend Oxyguard 84 84 88 74 74 80 tablet) bottle 1528-2851- 96 HDPE 115 72 90 99 99 78 RD (0.3 mg bottle coated Oxyguard 81 88 83 111 85 96 particle bottle tablet) 2010F100A 101 Blister strip 97 95 94 91 95 95 92 97 95 93 97 94 94 (3 mg dry blend capsule) 2010F101A 97 Blister strip 92 91 91 86 94 92 85 95 93 88 95 95 92 (0.3 mg dry blend capsule) 2010F099A 98 Blister srtip 94 92 91 89 93 94 89 94 94 91 95 94 92 (1 mg dry blend capsule) 11H141 103 Blister strip 101 95 92 87 98 93 92 96 92 95 100 97 97 (0.3 mg dry blend capsule) 11H152 (1 mg 102 Blister strip 97 91 91 93 94 95 96 96 95 96 97 95 97 dry blend capsule) 11H140 (3 mg 105 Blister strip 99 94 95 94 95 94 97 99 95 97 99 97 97 dry blend capsule) 1528-2925- 99 Oxyguard 99 103 RD (1 mg dry 40 cc with blend tablet) PharnaKeep 1528-2926- 100 Oxyguard 94 93 RD (3 mg dry 40 cc with blend tablet) PharnaKeep 1528-2907- 98 RD (3 mg dry blend capsule) 1528-2906- 98 RD (1 mg dry blend capsule) 1528-2890- 93 RD (0.3 mg dry blend capsule) *Blend As demonstrated by the table above, there was little or no appreciable loss in potency after storage under accelerated conditions (40 C/75RH or 30 C/65RH), which suggests that these capsules or tablets could be stable at room temperature for 18 months or for longer times if refrigerated or stored at 25 C. Water Content Summary: The table below shows that the water content was stable over the testing period in the packages evaluated for various capsule/tablet compositions. This further demonstrated that products were stable. Water packaged product Water 40 C./75 RH 30 C./65 RH 25 C./60 RH 5 C. Lot (in-process) Packaging Initial 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 7M 10M 1M 2M 3M 4M 7M 8.5M 1528-2850- 32-count, HDPE bottle, 5.03 5.64 3.00 2.22 2.39 5.48 1.8 RD 0.3 mg 60 cc, N2, 2 g mol. sieve dry blend 32-count, Oxyguard 5.07 5.24 4.28 5.33 4.08 5.31 3.7 capsule bottle, 40 cc, PharmaKeep KD-20 Blister, N2 4.21 4.87 5.80 4.76 4.31 4.09 2.8 1528-2855- 2.40 32-count, HDPE bottle, 0.57 0.47 1.63 0.68 0.42 0.2 RD 0.3 mg 60 cc, N2, 2 g mol. sieve coated bead 32-count, Oxyguard 2.10 1.05 1.29 2.07 0.30 0.8 capsule bottle, 40 cc, PharmaKeep KD-20 Blister strip 0.73 2.11 0.54 0.58 0.32 0.3 500-55 HDPE bottle 5.63 4.19 5.51 5.79 2.98 2.7 0.3 mg dry Oxyguard 5.78 4.69 5.90 5.66 2.99 2.8 blend bottle capsule Blister strip 4.09 5.78 4.17 5.53 6.16 3.12 2.9 1528- 32-count, HDPE bottle, 4.09 4.03 6.28 6.10 2.86 2.1 2850B-RD 60 cc, N2, 0.3 mg dry 2 g mol. sieve blend tablet 32-count, Oxyguard 4.81 4.91 6.15 6.30 4.05 3.4 bottle, 40 cc, PharmaKeep KD-20 1528-2851- 3.32 32-count, HDPE bottle, 4.33 4.50 5.09 5.90 2.55 1.5 RD 0.3 mg 60 cc, N2, 2 g mol. sieve coated 32-count, Oxyguard 5.15 4.88 5.82 6.02 4.34 3.0 particle bottle, 40 cc, PharmaKeep tablet KD-20 2010F100A Blister strip 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.4 4.5 4.8 4.5 (3 mg dry blend capsule) 2010F101A Blister strip 4.5 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.7 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.2 (0.3 mg dry blend capsule) 2010F099A Blister strip 4.6 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.7 4.3 (1 mg dry blend capsule) 11H141 Blister strip 5 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.1 4.9 4.8 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0 4.9 4.9 (0.3 mg dry blend capsule) 11H152 Blister strip 5.2 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0 4.9 4.8 (1 mg dry blend capsule) 11H140 Blister strip 5.2 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.9 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8 (3 mg dry blend capsule) 1528-2925- Oxyguard 40 cc with 4.9 4.0 RD (1 mg PharnaKeep dry blend tablet) 1528-2926- Oxyguard 40 cc with 4.0 4.0 RD (3 mg PharnaKeep dry blend capsule) 1528-2907- Bulk capsule 4.78 RD 3 mg dry blend capsule 1528-2906- Bulk capsule 4.84 RD 1 m dry blend capsule 1528-2890- Bulk capsule 4.8 RD Impurity Summary: The table below shows the product stability in terms of HPLC or UPLC of total impurities as a function of time and storage condition. The data in the table suggest that the increase in total impurities in tested batches except batch 500-55 be no greater than 7% at room temperature after 18 months. It also suggest that the increase in total impurities in all tested 1528-2855-RD batch in different packages be no greater than 7% at 30° C. for 18 months. It was also observed that the 1528-2855-RD batch had less impurity increase than the 1528-2850-RD batch or was more stable than the 1528-2850-RD batch. Total impurities % area 40 C./75 RH 30 C./65 RH 25 C./60 RH 5 C. Batch Package Initial 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 7M 10M 1M 2M 3M 4M 7M 8.5M 1528-2850- HDPE bottle 3.2 5.1 5.9 4.4 3.8 4.8 3.1 3.7 RD Oxyguard bottle 5.7 7.4 5.3 4.3 5.3 3.1 3.5 Blister strip 5.5 7.0 5.0 4.3 5.5 3.7 1528-2855- HDPE bottle 3.5 3.6 5.1 3.8 3.4 4.4 3.4 RD Oxyguard bottle 3.9 4.4 4.1 3.7 4.0 3.7 Blister strip 4.0 5.2 4.0 3.6 4.2 3.8 500-55 HDPE bottle 3.2 5.7 8.4 5.4 4.4 6.0 3.5 Oxyguard bottle 5.6 7.0 5.1 4.3 5.6 3.5 Blister strip 6.5 8.0 5.7 4.8 6.5 3.6 1528- HDPE bottle 3.6 5.0 6.5 4.5 3.9 4.7 3.7 2850B-RD Oxyg uard bottle 5.6 7.3 4.7 4.1 4.9 3.6 1528-2851- HDPE bottle 3.7 4.2 5.1 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.7 RD Oxyguard bottle 4.9 6.8 4.7 4.4 4.3 3.9 2010F101A Blister strip 2.1 4.4 3.9 4.7 2.9 3.2 3.4 3.1 2.7 3.2 2.0 1.3 2.0 (0.3 mg dry blend capsule) 2010F099A Blister strip 2.9 3.7 3.8 4.3 3.1 3.1 3.6 2.7 2.9 3.2 2.4 2.4 2.4 (1 mg dry blend capsule) 2010F100A Blister strip 2.4 3.2 3.6 4.2 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.6 2.7 2.9 2.4 2.5 2.7 (3 mg dry blend capsule) 11H141 Blister strip 1.3 3.3 4.2 4.5 2.5 3.6 3.3 2.0 2.8 2.9 1.4 1.5 1.8 (0.3 mg dry blend capsule) 11H152 Blister strip 2.4 3.6 4.2 4.1 2.6 3.2 3.1 2.6 3.1 2.9 2.3 2.3 2.1 (1 mg dry blend capsule) 11H140 Blister strip 2.1 3.5 3.7 4.5 2.6 2.7 3.3 2.5 2.7 2.9 2.3 2.2 1.8 (3 mg dry blend capsule) 1528-2925- Oxyguard 40 cc 2.7 1.7 RD (1 mg with PharnaKeep dry blend tablet) 1528-2926- Oxyguard 40 cc 2.6 RD (3 mg with PharnaKeep dry blend capsule) 1528-2906- HDPE bottle 1.83 5.18 RD 1528-2907- HDPE bottle 1.85 4.58 RD 1528-2890- Bulk 1.9 RD Content Uniformity: This test was performed by placing 10 individual capsule/tablet units in 10 individual bottles and potency of each unit was measured to show whether individual capsules or tablets have uniform potency (% label claim or % LC). 0.3 mg Dry blend tablet 1528-2850B-RD % LC 1528-2850B- Sample RD (dry tabs) 1 78.62 2 91.43 3 86.52 4 90.9 5 84.83 6 95.29 7 75.69 8 76.87 9 84.92 10 86.9 Mean 85.2 std. dev 6.51 % RSD 7.64 0.3 mg Coated particle tablet 1528-2851-RD Weight % Label Sample (mg) Claim 1 88.86 69.55 2 89 94.41 3 88.89 94.34 4 88.6 72.18 5 88.37 142.52 6 88.76 149.44 7 89.42 78.8 8 88.56 131.08 9 89.08 102.55 10 88.78 99.13 Mean 103.4 St. Dev 28.53 % RSD 27.59 3 mg Dry blend 1 mg Dry blend 0.3 mg Dry blend capsule 1528- capsule 1528-2906- capsule 1528-2890 2907-RD RD Sample % LC Sample % LC Sample % LC 1 87.2 1 94.5 1 98.1 2 94.6 2 101.2 2 101.8 3 92.6 3 97.9 3 93.1 4 94.2 4 94.5 4 97.5 5 93.5 5 95.9 5 97.9 6 91.7 6 95.2 6 97.1 7 91.6 7 96.1 7 94.5 8 99 8 99 8 100.1 9 91.8 9 93.8 9 98.1 10 92.1 10 93.4 10 97.9 Mean 92.8 Mean 96.2 Mean 97.6 RSD 3.20% RSD 2.60% RSD 2.50% AV(10)*** 12.8 AV(10) 8.4 AV(10) 6.8 ***AV = acceptance value used for UPS <905> content uniformity. Idealy AV should be less than 15 to pass USP <905> content uniformity. 0.3 mg dry blend capsule 1528-2850-RD Original Re -preparation Sample % LC % LC 1 82.73 85.87 2 84.57 89.45 3 80.29 91.39 4 84.88 88.45 5 85.2 86.96 6 82.9 84.84 7 84.75 86.21 8 86.58 91.37 9 84.34 88.79 10 88.82 84.75 Mean 84.51 87.81 std. dev 2.288445 2.467121 % RSD 2.7 2.8 Conte1528- 1528- 2855-RD 2850B-RD Sample % LC Sample % LC 1 88.82 1 78.62 2 93.73 2 91.43 3 89.06 3 86.52 4 84.94 4 90.9 5 89.93 5 84.83 6 88.7 6 95.29 7 88.71 7 75.69 8 86.85 8 76.87 9 86.92 9 84.92 10 91.33 10 86.9 Mean 88.9 Mean 85.2 std. dev 2.45 std. dev 6.51 % RSD 2.76 % RSD 7.64 500-55 % label Sample claim 1 96.90% 2 99.40% 3 103.20%  4 96.90% 5 100.00%  6 99.60% 7 96.90% 8 102.80%  9 96.80% 10 93.90% Mean 98.60% SD 2.91 RSD  3.00% AV 7.1 (PASS) The data in the tables above show that all of the batches yield very good content uniformity acceptable for commercial product. Dissolution 50-Rpm Summary: The tables below are summaries of the dissolution of drug from capsules or tablets in an unconventional small-volume apparatus needed to measure the small amount of drug in the units using slow stirring to look for changes in dissolution over time. The test was performed by placing one unit into a very small volume of water at 37 C with a paddle stirring at 50-rpm (which is slow) and data were collected at 15, 30 45, and 60 minutes to show the drug release rate over time. These tested products are “immediate release” oral solid dosage forms and a conventional requirement is to have about 75% released in about 45 minutes. The tables summarize the results at 45 minutes and indicate that dissolution was stable over time. Dissolution (% label claim at 45 minutes) Lot 40 C./ 30 C./ (de- Initial 75 RH 65 RH 25 C. 5 C. scription) bulk 0M 1M 2M 3M 3M 4M 1528- Vessel 1 85 78 84 81 86 83 2850-RD Vessel 2 87 73 90 82 84 85 (dry blend Vessel 3 88 79 85 79 91 87 V-Cap Vessel 4 84 86 87 78 83 85 capsule Vessel 5 89 72 89 80 79 90 HDPE Vessel 6 88 81 85 82 88 83 bottle) Average 87 78 87 80 85 85 RSD 2 6.4 2.7 2.1 5.0 2.9 1528- Vessel 1 85 69 89 79 88 82 2850-RD Vessel 2 87 75 89 87 81 85 (dry blend Vessel 3 88 77 87 86 84 86 Vcap Vessel 4 84 80 87 83 83 80 capsule Vessel 5 89 71 88 89 84 84 OxyGuard Vessel 6 88 76 88 79 86 89 bottle) Average 87 75 88 84 84 84 RSD 2 5.3 1.2 5.2 3.1 3.6 1528- Vessel 1 85 75 59 86 73 83 2850-RD Vessel 2 87 89 77 79 81 81 (dry Vessel 3 88 88 83 87 74 84 blend Vessel 4 84 89 67 93 85 83 V-cap Vessel 5 89 93 75 82 82 84 capsule Vessel 6 88 90 82 90 67 87 blister Average 87 87 74 86 77 84 strip) RSD 2 7 12.5 6.3 8.6 2.4 Dissolution (% label claim at 45 minutes) Lot Initial 40 C./75 RH 30 C./65 RH 25 C. (description) bulk 1M 2M 3M 3M 1528-2855-RD Vessel 1 104 85 100 79 83 (coated bead Vessel2 89 90 97 83 88 V-Cap capsule Vessel 3 91 84 71 91 50 HDPE bottle) Vessel 4 88 64 73 94 88 Vessel 5 94 75 72 75 92 Vessel 6 93 80 39 96 94 Average 93 80 75 86 83 RSD 6 12 29 9.7 20 1528-2855RD Vessel 1 104 88 80 87 78 (coated bead Vessel 2 89 79 91 86 94 V-cap capsule Vessel 3 91 84 63 92 74 OxyGuard Vessel 4 88 92 98 90 98 bottle) Vessel 5 94 89 81 81 93 Vessel 6 93 44 99 81 78 Average 93 79 85 86 86 RSD 6 23 16 5.3 12.1 1528-2855-RD Vessel 1 104 85 98 100 81 (coated bead Vessel 2 89 84 94 63 80 V-cap capsule Vessel 3 91 97 96 82 87 blister strip) Vessel 4 88 94 96 55 74 Vessel 5 94 64 75 95 66 Vessel 6 93 96 102 89 82 Average 93 87 93 81 78 RSD 6 14 10 22.4 9.2 Dissolution (% label claim at 45 minutes) Lot Initial 40 C./75RH 30 C./65RH (description) bulk 1 M 2 M 3 M 1528-2851- Vessel 1 58% 67 68 89 RD (coated Vessel 2 77% 84 78 124 particle tablet Vessel 3 57% 62 68 70 HDPE bottle) Vessel 4 96% 110 84 105 Vessel 5 95% 65 107 61 Vessel 6 64% 103 76 51 Average 74% 82 80 83 RSD 24% 26 18 33 1528-2851- Vessel 1 58% 89 54 118 RD (coated Vessel 2 77% 73 101 69 particle tablet Vessel 3 57% 75 82 80 OxyGuard Vessel 4 96% 68 67 73 bottle) Vessel 5 95% 76 162 96 Vessel 6 64% 97 82 95 Average 74% 80 91 89 RSD 24% 14 42 21 Dissolution (% label claim at 45 minutes) Lot Initial 40 C./75RH 30 C./65RH (description) bulk 1 M 2 M 3 M 1528-2850B- Vessel 1 90% 88 96 92 RD (dry blend Vessel 2 69% 79 82 92 tablet HDPE Vessel 3 83% 76 100 85 bottle) Vessel 4 94% 96 86 94 Vessel 5 88% 89 89 83 Vessel 6 92% 83 97 83 Average 86% 85 92 88 RSD 11% 8.2 8 5.6 1528-2850B- Vessel 1 90% 74 80 91 RD (dry blend Vessel 2 69% 97 87 95 tablet Vessel 3 83% 91 86 90 OxyGuard Vessel 4 94% 94 91 90 bottle) Vessel 5 88% 83 91 89 Vessel 6 92% 91 76 84 Average 86% 88 85 90 RSD 11% 9.6 7 4.0 Dissolution (% label claim at 45 minutes) Lot Initial 40 C./75 RH 30 C./65 RH 25 C. (description) bulk 0M 1M 2M 3M 3M 500-55 (dry Vessel 1 95 90 92 91 89 blend V-Cap Vessel 2 98 85 98 97 98 Plus capsule Vessel 3 69 85 96 94 76 HDPE bottle) Vessel 4 94 89 95 100 97 Vessel 5 99 89 97 98 86 Vessel 6 104 100 99 94 92 Average 93 89 96 96 90 RSD 13.1 6.2 2.4 3.6 9.1 500-55 (dry Vessel 1 95 84 103 99 94 blend V-Cap Vessel 2 98 97 101 95 103 Plus capsule Vessel 3 69 97 99 98 97 OxyGuard Vessel 4 94 92 97 92 96 bottle) Vessel 5 99 91 100 95 101 Vessel 6 104 96 95 93 91 Average 93 93 99 95 97 RSD 13.1 5.3 2.7 2.7 4.3 500-55 (dry Vessel 1 95 98 99 89 98 blend V-Cap Vessel 2 98 101 88 94 87 Plus capsule Vessel 3 69 107 90 89 96 foil blister) Vessel 4 94 96 90 86 87 Vessel 5 99 99 68 89 94 Vessel 6 104 99 90 82 89 Average 93 100 87 88 92 RSD 13.1 3.8 11.8 4.3 5.5 Dry blend 3 mg lot 1528-2907-RD 500-mL 15 min 30 min 45 min 60 min Vessel 1 91 96 97 96 Vessel 2 96 95 97 96 Vessel 3 96 97 97 97 Vessel 4 95 102 100 100 Vessel 5 97 96 96 97 Vessel 6 92 99 98 98 Average 94 97 98 97 RSD 2.7 2.5 1.1 1.4 Dry blend 1 mg lot 1528-2906-RD 150-mL 15 min 30 min 45 min 60 min Vessel 1 65 92 96 99 Vessel 2 49 91 95 96 Vessel 3 46 88 96 97 Vessel 4 44 96 101 102 Vessel 5 39 78 93 99 Vessel 6 57 90 95 96 Average 50 89 96 98 RSD 18.8 7 2.8 2.4 Dry blend 0.3 mg lot 1528-2890-RD 50-mL 15 min 30 min 45 min 60 min Vessel 1 57 94 100 105 Vessel 2 60 96 100 105 Vessel 3 86 93 94 95 Vessel 4 76 90 91 101 Vessel 5 69 90 97 106 Vessel 6 68 95 97 97 Average 69 93 97 102 RSD 15.6 2.8 3.4 4.5 Capsule Dissolution at 45 minutes Lot 5 C. 25 C. 30 C. 40 C. (strength) COA 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 1M 2M 3M 2011F101  98%  99%  95%  95%  95%  92%  95%  94% 93%  97%  93% 90% 92% A (0.3 mg) 2011F099  96%  95%  95%  95%  91%  93%  94%  93% 90%  95%  95% 92% 93% A (1 mg) 2011F100  99% 101%  97%  97% 100%  95%  95%  98% 95%  95%  96% 93% 95% A (3 mg) 11H141 101% 102% 101% 101% 105%  96% 106% 102% 97% 103%  99% 96% 98% (0.3 mg) 11H152  96%  96%  99%  97%  96%  99%  97%  96% 96%  98%  96% 96% 98% (1 mg) 11H140 102% 102% 102% 101% 105% 100%  97% 102% 99% 102% 101% 99% 96% (3 mg) Dissolution 75-Rpm: The tables below show a few examples where the stirring rate was increased slightly to 75-rpm to give more consistent results and indicates stable dissolution after accelerated storage of 1 or 2 months at 40 C 75% relative humidity. Dry blend 0.3 mg lot 1528-2850-RD 1 M 40 C./75RH 75-rpm 50-mL 15 min 30 min 45 min 60 min Vessel 1 75 80 80 81 Vessel 2 61 75 80 82 Vessel 3 65 81 83 84 Vessel 4 78 86 84 85 Vessel 5 66 79 83 84 Vessel 6 62 79 84 86 Average 68 80 82 84 RSD 10.3 4.5 2.3 2.2 Dry blend 1 mg lot 1528-2906A-RD 2 M 40 C./75RH 75-rpm 50-mL 15 min 30 min 45 min 60 min Vessel 1 69 84 88 88 Vessel 2 62 82 84 85 Vessel 3 65 82 85 85 Vessel 4 58 70 80 79 Vessel 5 59 77 82 81 Vessel 6 68 80 83 84 Average 64 79 84 84 RSD 7.2 6.4 3.3 3.8 2855-RD Dissolution: The tables below are all the dissolution profiles of batch 1528-2850-RD and indicate stable drug release over time. Initial Percent Dissolved Vessel 15 30 45 60 1 84% 99% 104%  104%  2 28% 80% 89% 92% 3 68% 83% 91% 95% 4 56% 79% 88% 98% 5 29% 83% 94% 98% 6 74% 85% 93% 96% Mean 57% 85% 93% 97% RSD 41.20%   8.50%   6.00%   4.20%   2M 30 C./65 RH 3M 30 C./65 RH 3M 25 C./60 RH 1M 40 C./75 RH OxyGuard Packaging OxyGuard OxyGuard OxyGuard 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 Vessel min min min min min min min min min min min min min min min min 1 35 74 88 93 47 67 80 90 76 83 87 88 44 62 78 85 2 46 74 79 85 57 80 91 95 65 79 86 91 70 89 94 97 3 39 78 84 88 43 55 63 71 64 84 92 97 48 62 74 79 4 59 82 92 94 753 92 98 101 71 85 90 94 65 92 98 103 5 22 82 89 92 38 64 81 92 60 75 81 87 72 86 93 96 6 4 20 44 61 54 94 99 101 55 74 81 87 53 74 78 84 Average 34 68 79 86 52 75 85 92 65 80 86 91 59 78 86 91 RSD 57 35 23 14 25 21 16 12 11.7 5.7 5.3 4.6 20.1 17.4 12.1 10.4 1M 40 C./75 RH HDPE Bottle 2M 30 C./65 RH HDPE 3M 30 C./65 RH HDPE 3M 25 C./60 RH HDPE 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 Vessel min min min min min min min min min min min min min min min min 1 61 78 85 89 78 97 100 103 58 72 79 85 54 70 83 92 2 63 83 90 92 77 93 97 98 51 72 83 90 66 81 88 92 3 66 79 84 91 41 59 71 78 53 84 91 94 10 29 50 66 4 25 44 64 77 50 65 73 78 66 89 94 95 69 81 88 92 5 47 67 75 80 37 59 72 83 48 66 75 81 68 83 92 97 6 57 71 80 85 6 21 39 52 85 94 96 99 82 91 94 97 Average 53 70 80 86 48 66 75 82 60 80 86 91 58 73 83 89 RSD 28 20 12 7 56 42 29 22 22.6 14 9.7 7.3 43 30.6 19.6 13.3 1M 40 C./75 RH Blister Packaging 2M 30 C./65 RH Blister 3M 30 C./65 RH Blister 3M 25 C./60 RH Blister 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 15 30 45 60 Vessel min min min min min min min min min min min min min min min min 1 36 69 85 90 61 91 98 100 82 95 100 102 53 71 81 90 2 41 69 84 88 57 82 94 100 31 48 63 74 27 57 80 87 3 67 96 97 98 63 87 96 100 69 77 82 85 70 78 87 92 4 54 83 94 104 36 80 96 100 29 41 55 69 52 66 74 87 5 10 46 64 79 45 61 75 83 84 94 95 97 25 48 66 80 6 70 91 96 100 87 100 102 104 74 84 89 82 50 74 82 84 Average 47 76 87 93 58 83 93 98 62 73 81 85 46 66 78 87 RSD 48 25 14 10 30 16 10 8 40.5 32.1 22.4 14.9 37.0 17.0 9.2 5.3 Bathes 2850-RD, 2850B-RD, 2851-RD, and 500-55 were also tested in the similar fashion and all showed stable drug release over time.

Description

Topics

Download Full PDF Version (Non-Commercial Use)

Patent Citations (84)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-2012289460-A1November 15, 2012Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of Guanylate Cyclase Useful for the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia, Atherosclerosis, Coronary Heart Disease, Gallstone, Obesity and Other Cardiovascular Diseases
    US-7041786-B2May 09, 2006Callisto PharmaceuticalsGuanylate cyclase receptor agonists for the treatment of tissue inflammation and carcinogenesis
    US-5601990-AFebruary 11, 1997Thomas Jefferson UniversityMethods of diagnosing colorectal tumors and metastasis thereof
    US-2010069306-A1March 18, 2010Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonists of Guanylate Cyclase Useful for the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inflammation, Cancer and Other Disorders
    US-8034782-B2October 11, 2011Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-5518888-AMay 21, 1996Thomas Jefferson UniversityST receptor binding compounds and methods of using the same
    US-2008151257-A1June 26, 2008Nikon CorporationPosition measurement method, position control method, measurement method, loading method, exposure method and exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method
    WO-2010009319-A2January 21, 2010Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonistes de guanylate cyclase utiles pour le traitement de troubles gastro-intestinaux, inflammatoires, cancéreux et autres
    US-2004015140-A1January 22, 2004Shields Milton B.Uveoscleral drainage device
    WO-2008106429-A2September 04, 2008Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Milne, G. ToddMethods and compositions for the treatment of heart failure and other disorders
    WO-2006086653-A2August 17, 2006Microbia, Inc.Methods and compositions for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders
    US-2005266047-A1December 01, 2005Hosheng Tu, Jason Artof, David HaffnerInjectable glaucoma implants with multiple openings
    US-8357775-B2January 22, 2013Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-2010048489-A1February 25, 2010Ironwood Pharmaceuticals Inc.Stable Solid Formulation of A GC-C Receptor Agonist Polypeptide Suitable for Oral Administration
    WO-2008151257-A2December 11, 2008Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-2012237593-A1September 20, 2012Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Formulations of Guanylate Cyclase C Agonists and Methods of Use
    US-5879656-AMarch 09, 1999Thomas Jefferson UniversityMethods of treating metastatic colorectal cancer with ST receptor binding compounds
    WO-2008137318-A1November 13, 2008Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Compositions et procédés de traitement de troubles associés à la rétention de sel ou de fluide
    US-8114831-B2February 14, 2012Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Guanylate cyclase receptor agonists for the treatment of tissue inflammation and carcinogenesis
    US-8497348-B2July 30, 2013Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-2009192083-A1July 30, 2009Currie Mark GMethods and compositions for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders
    US-5928873-AJuly 27, 1999Thomas Jefferson UniversityMethods of and kits and compositions for diagnosing colorectal tumors and metastasis thereof
    WO-9926567-A1June 03, 1999Optonol Ltd., Werner, Mary, C.Flow regulating implant, method of manufacturing, and delivery device
    US-2014287002-A1September 25, 2014Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists Of Guanylate Cyclase And Their Uses
    US-2010093635-A1April 15, 2010Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonists of Guanylate Cyclase UseFul For The Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inflammation, Cancer and Other Disorders
    WO-2005087797-A1September 22, 2005Microbia, Inc.Methods and compositions for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders
    US-5489670-AFebruary 06, 1996G. D. Searle & Co.Human uroguanylin
    US-2005032684-A1February 10, 2005Yalcin Cetin, Yuksel SavasUse of a peptide which activates guanylate-cyclase c for the treatment of respiratory airway problems via the airways, medicament, inhaltion devices and method of diagnosis
    US-2014135274-A1May 15, 2014Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of Guanylate Cyclase Useful For the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inflammation, Cancer and Other Disorders
    US-2005107734-A1May 19, 2005Coroneo Minas T.Ocular pressure regulation
    WO-2009149278-A1December 10, 2009Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    WO-02098912-A2December 12, 2002Yalcin Cetin, Savas YuekselUtilisation d'un peptide qui active la guanylate-cyclase c pour le traitement de maladies des voies respiratoires par les voies aeriennes, medicament, dispositif d'inhalation et methode de diagnostic
    WO-02078683-A1October 10, 2002Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonistes du recepteur du type guanylate cyclase servant au traitement de l'inflammation tissulaire et de la carcinogenese
    US-5106834-AApril 21, 1992G. D. Searle & Co.Linear free-sulfhydryl-containing oligopeptide derivatives as antihypertensive agents
    US-7879802-B2February 01, 2011Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-2009048175-A1February 19, 2009Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-2006086653-A1April 27, 2006Usfilter CorporationFilter having a media retaining plate
    US-2014024605-A1January 23, 2014Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of Guanylate Cyclase Useful For the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inflammation, Cancer and Other Disorders
    WO-2010065751-A2June 10, 2010Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Formulations d'agonistes de guanylate cyclase c et méthode d'utilisation
    US-2010221329-A1September 02, 2010Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Formulations of guanylate cyclase c agonists and methods of use
    DE-19744027-A1April 08, 1999Hoechst Marion Roussel De GmbhSubstituierte Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine, ihre Herstellung und Verwendung in Arzneimitteln
    US-8367800-B2February 05, 2013Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-2007101158-A1May 03, 2007Elliott Robert CSecurity region in a non-volatile memory
    WO-2012037380-A2March 22, 2012Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Préparations d'agonistes du guanylate cyclase-c et méthodes d'utilisation
    US-5731159-AMarch 24, 1998Thomas Jefferson UniversityMethods of and kits and compositions for diagnosing colorectal tumors and metastasis thereof
    WO-2007022531-A2February 22, 2007Microbia, Inc.Methods and compositions for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders
    US-2014329738-A1November 06, 2014Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of Guanylate Cyclase Useful For the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inflammation, Cancer and Other Disorders
    WO-9312068-A1June 24, 1993Brigham And Women's HospitalS-nitrosothiols utilises comme decontracturants des muscles lisses et leurs utilisations therapeutiques
    US-5721238-AFebruary 24, 1998Bayer Aktiengesellschaft2,8-disubstituted quinazolinones
    US-5969097-AOctober 19, 1999G. D. Searle & Co.Human guanylin
    US-6235782-B1May 22, 2001Rifat Pamukcu, Kerstin B. MenanderMethod for treating a patient with neoplasia by treatment with a platinum coordination complex
    US-2002078683-A1June 27, 2002Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaAir-Fuel ratio control system for internal combustion engine and control method thereof
    US-7375083-B2May 20, 2008Shire LlcPharmaceutical compositions for prevention of overdose or abuse
    US-2009253634-A1October 08, 2009Microbia, Inc.Methods and Compositions for the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders
    WO-2005016244-A2February 24, 2005Microbia, Inc.Methodes et compositions pour le traitement de troubles gastro-intestinaux
    US-2012196797-A1August 02, 2012Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Methods and Compositions for the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders
    US-5578709-ANovember 26, 1996Middlesex Sciences, Inc.Macromolecular microparticles and methods of production
    US-8637451-B2January 28, 2014Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Guanylate cyclase receptor agonists for the treatment of tissue inflammation and carcinogenesis
    US-2005016244-A1January 27, 2005Rainer HergemollerMethod for processing drawn material and drawn material production installation
    US-2008137318-A1June 12, 2008Sudarshan Rangaraj, Shankar Ganapathysubramanian, Richard Harries, Mitul Modi, Subramanian Sankara JCompliant structure for an electronic device, method of manufacturing same, and system containing same
    WO-0125266-A1April 12, 2001Pharmacia CorporationUroguanylin as an intestinal cancer inhibiting agent
    US-2014121169-A1May 01, 2014Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Guanylate Cyclase Receptor Agonists For The Treatment Of Tissue Inflammation And Carcinogenesis
    US-6060037-AMay 09, 2000Thomas Jefferson UniversityCompositions that specifically bind to colorectal cancer cells and methods of using the same
    WO-2007101158-A2September 07, 2007Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Methods and compositions for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders
    US-2010120694-A1May 13, 2010Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonists of Guanylate Cyclase Useful for the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inflammation, Cancer and Other Disorders
    WO-2009149279-A2December 10, 2009Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    WO-02062369-A2August 15, 2002Pharmacia CorporationCombinaisons d'uroguanyline et d'inhibiteur de cyclooxygenase-2 pour l'inhibition du cancer de l'intestin
    WO-2011020054-A1February 17, 2011Ironwood Pharmaceuticals Inc.Procédé de modulation de l'effet pharmacodynamique d'agonistes des récepteurs de guanylate cyclase administrés par voie orale
    US-8716224-B2May 06, 2014Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-7494979-B2February 24, 2009Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Method for treating congestive heart failure and other disorders
    WO-8805306-A1July 28, 1988The General Hospital CorporationAtriopeptines, activateurs de guanylate cyclase, et inhibiteurs de phosphodiesterase utilises pour traiter le glaucome, l'hydrocephalie et l'oedeme cerebral (troubles volumiques du liquide cephalo-rachidien)
    US-5130333-AJuly 14, 1992E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc.Method for treating type II diabetes employing a cholesterol lowering drug
    US-2002128176-A1September 12, 2002Wolf-Georg Forssmann, Hans-Jurgen Magert, Christian Stief, Andrea Kuthe, Stefan Uckert, Armin Becker, Udo JonasTreatment of erectile dysfunctions with C-Type natriuretic polypeptide (CNP) as a monotherapy or in combination with phosphodiesterase inhibitors
    US-2005267197-A1December 01, 2005Roger BerlinCompositions containing policosanol and HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitor and their pharmaceutical uses
    US-2002133168-A1September 19, 2002Smedley Gregory T., Morteza Gharib, Hosheng TuApplicator and methods for placing a trabecular shunt for glaucoma treatment
    US-2010152118-A1June 17, 2010Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, gallstone, obesity and other cardiovascular diseases
    US-2002143015-A1October 03, 2002Fryburg David A., Gibbs Earl M., Koppiker Nandan P.Treatment of diabetes mellitus
    WO-2004069165-A2August 19, 2004Microbia, Inc.Methods and compositions for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders
    US-8207295-B2June 26, 2012Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Agonists of guanylate cyclase useful for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, cancer and other disorders
    US-2003073628-A1April 17, 2003Kunwar Shailubhai, Gregory Nikiforovich, Jacob Gary S.Guanylate cyclase receptor agonists for the treatment of tissue inflammation and carcinogenesis
    US-2006094658-A1May 04, 2006Currie Mark G, Shalina Mahajan-Miklos, Sun Li J, Caroline KurtzMethod and compositions for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders
    US-7799897-B2September 21, 2010Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Guanylate cyclase receptor agonists for the treatment of tissue inflammation and carcinogenesis
    US-2013274204-A1October 17, 2013Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc.Agonists of Guanylate Cyclase Useful for the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inflammation, Cancer and Other Disorders
    WO-2010027404-A2March 11, 2010Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Formulation solide stable de polypeptides thérapeutiques se prêtant à une administration par voie orale

NO-Patent Citations (52)

    Title
    Advisory Committee Briefing document for Merida [sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate], Abbott, Aug. 13, 2010 (205 pages).
    Basoglu et al. In: Proceedings of the Second FEPS Congress, Jun. 29-Jul. 4, 1999, Prague, Czech Republic, If2.cuni.cz/physiolres/feps/basoglu.htm. (3 pages).
    BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS, 1 April 2006, Philadelphia, PA, US; HEGAZI REFAAT, ET AL: "Sp304, an analog of uroguanylin, ameliorates inflammation in a model of experimental colitis" XP002540570
    Business Wire. Callisto Pharmaceuticals Files IND for SP-304 (Guanilib) in Chronic Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Apr. 7, 2008. http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20080407005383/en/Callisto-Pharmaceuticals-F.
    Cui et al. The permissive effect of zinc deficiency on uroguanylin and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene upregulation in rat intestine induced by interleukin 1α is rapidly reversed by zinc repletion. J. Nutri. 133(1):51-56 (2003).
    Cynomolgus monkeys. Worldwide Primates Inc. http://www.wwprimates.com/?q=cynomolgus-monkeys.
    European Application No. 02721604.3: Office Communication dated Aug. 12, 2008 (3 pages).
    European Application No. 02721604.3: Response to European Patent Office Communication dated Mar. 16, 2007 (5 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: CombiMab, Inc. Annex to Notice of Opposition dated Apr. 22, 2010 (41 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Opposition dated Apr. 22, 2010 ( pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Response to Communication from Opposition division dated Oct. 8, 2010 (44 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Written submission dated Dec. 7, 2011 (6 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Written submission dated Nov. 18, 2011 by Ironwood (14 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Written submission dated Nov. 22, 2011 (18 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Written submission dated Oct. 14, 2011 (7 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Written submission dated Oct. 14, 2011 by Ironwood (27 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Written submission dated Oct. 25, 2011(5 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224: Written submission dated Oct. 7, 2011 in response to the Jun. 24, 2011 preliminary opinion of the Opposition Division (7 pages).
    European Patent 1,379,224:: Summons to attend oral hearing dated Jun. 6, 2011 (23 pages).
    FMC BioPolymer Catalog. 2005.
    FMC BioPolymer of Avicel PH Production Instruction, 21 pages (2005).
    Genbank 1UYAA—Chain A, Solution Structure A—Form uroguanylin. Mar. 15, 2010. 2 pages.
    Genbank 1UYBA—Chain A, Solution Structure B—Form uroguanylin. Mar. 15, 2010. 2 pages.
    Genbank AAB18760.1 (rat, 1995) Mar. 11, 2010. 2 pages.
    Genbank AAB30324.1: Guca2B (human, 1994) Mar. 11, 2010. 2 pages.
    Genbank AAC50416.1; GUCA2B (human, 1994) Mar. 11, 2010. 2 pages.
    Genbank: AAD09215.1 (mouse, 1996) Mar. 11, 2010. 2 pages.
    Genbank: CAA98994.1 (guinea pig, 1996) Mar. 11, 2010. 2 pages.
    Genbank: CAB0642.1 (pig, 1996) Mar. 11, 2010. 2 pages.
    Genbank: PRF.738946 (opossum, 1993) Mar. 15, 2010. 1 page.
    Gulcan et al. The predictive value of CRP levels on future severe renal disease in overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Am. J. Med. Sci 334:444-451 (2007).
    Hinds et al. “Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (ethylene glycol)—Insulin Conjugates” Bioconjug. Chem. 11:195-201 (2000).
    http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/childrens—health—issues/hereditary—metabolic—disorders/disorders—ofLipid—metabolism.html: last updated 2009; last visited Sep. 25, 2012 (1 page).
    http:www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/obesity.html: 1999-2011; last visited Sep. 25, 2012 (6 pages).
    International Preliminary Report on Patentability, PCT Appl. No. PCT/US2011/051805, 17 pages (Dec. 15, 2012).
    International Preliminary Report on Patentability, PCT Appl. No. PCT/US2013/030551, 7 pages (Sep. 16, 2014).
    International Search Report in International Application No. PCT/US2009/046287, 5 pages (Nov. 10, 2009).
    International Search Report in International Application No. PCT/US2009/046288, (Dec. 9, 2009).
    International Search Report, PCT Appl. No. PCT/US2011/051805, 6 pages (Jun. 21, 2012).
    International Search Report, PCT Appl. No. PCT/US2013/030551, 5 pages (Jun. 18, 2013).
    Kelland “‘Of mice and men’: values and liabilities of the athymic nude mouse model in anticancer drug development” Eur. J. Cancer 40(6):827-836 (2004).
    Kita et al. :Characterization of human uroguanylin: A member of the guanylin peptide family Am. J. Physiol. 266:F342-8 (1994).
    Magert et al. Porcine guanylin and uroguanylin: cDNA sequences, deduced amino acid sequences, and biological activity of the chemically synthesized peptides Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 259:141-148 (1999).
    Miyazato et al. :Uroguanylin gene expression in the alimentary tract and extra-gastrointestinal tissues FEBS Letters, 398:170-174 (1996).
    PubChem, CID 469, http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=469#x27, (last visited Oct. 18, 2014). 19 pages.
    Shailubhai et al. “SP-304 to treat GI disorders—effects of a single, oral dose of SP-304 in safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy volunteers” [Abstract]: in Digestive Disease Week, (2009) 1 page.
    Shailubhai, K.; Gerson, W.; Talluto, C.; Jacob, G. Digestive Disease Week. San Diego: 2008. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-, ascending-, oral-dose safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic study of SP-304 in healthy adult human male and female volunteers.
    Spranger et al. “Inflammatory cytokines and the risk to develop Type 2 Diabetes: Results of the prospective population-based European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)—Potsdam study” Diabetes, 52:812-817 (2003).
    St. John's Providence Health Center; Preventing Obesity, http:www.stjohnprovidence.org/healthInfoLib/swArticle.aspx?85.P07863; last visited Sep. 25, 2012 (2 pages).
    Venkatakrishnan et al. Exaggerated activation of nuclear factor-B and altered I B-processing in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells. Am. J. Resp. Cell Mol. Biol. 23(3):396-403 (2000).
    Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority, PCT Appl. No. PCT/US2011/051805, 5 pages (Jun. 21, 2012).
    Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority, PCT Appl. No. PCT/US2013/030551, 6 pages (Jun. 18, 2013).

Cited By (2)

    Publication numberPublication dateAssigneeTitle
    US-2017202903-A1July 20, 2017Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Formulations of guanylate cyclase c agonists and methods of use
    US-2017202904-A1July 20, 2017Synergy Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Formulations of guanylate cyclase c agonists and methods of use